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1 INTRODUCTION

In
terms of different vibration absorption methods, structural control can be
classified into active control, passive control, hybrid control, semi-active
control and so on. The passive control is more studied and applied to the
existing buildings than the others. Damper is a passive vibration control
system that does not require any external power source for its operation and
utilizes the motion of the structure to develop the control forces. Passive
energy dissipation device play a role similar to that of seismic isolators
namely to absorb and dissipate a significant portion of the energy input to a
building by earthquake shaking. Energy dissipation devices are typically
distributed throughout a structure to absorb either kinetic or strain energy
transmitted from the ground into the primary system.  Damping in structures can significantly
reduce the displacement and acceleration responses, and decrease the shear forces, along the height
of buildings. Energy dissipation in buildings can be confined mainly to
supplemental dampers. Damage to the building can be limited to supplemental
dampers which are easier to replace than structural components.

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW –

A.  METALLIC DAMPER

Metallic
dampers or Metallic
yield damper, also called as the metallic yielding energy dissipation device,
as a well-known passive energy dissipation device, provides a new way to resist
the imposed loads to structural. The structural response can be reduced when
subjected to wind and earthquake by mounting metallic yield damper into the
buildings, thereby reduces energy-dissipating demand on primary structural
members and minimizes possible structural damage. Its effectiveness and low
cost are now well recognized and extensively tested in the past in civil
engineering. The MYDs are mainly made of some special metal or alloy material
and is easy to be yielded and have good performance of energy dissipation when
it services in the structure which suffered by seismic events.

Fig.
1 Metallic yield
damper

The metallic yield damper is
one kind of displacement-correlated and passive energy dissipation damper. First
hysteric damper were implemented by Skinner et al, (1980) the metallic dampers
are made up of mild steel plates. The vast study is going on different metallic
damper and many on them are currently in application. X- Plate damper is one
type of metallic damper made up of group of plates, its mechanism is more
useful during earthquake, Pujari and Bakre, (2011) investigated
the seismic effectiveness of an XPD as a
seismic protective system for industrial piping systems.  They
studied seismic performance of a piping system under important parametric
variation of the damper properties
for an industrial piping system under real earthquake
ground motions and
the effect of X-plate damper to control the seismic response.  There exist optimal combinations of
the properties of an XPD for which maximum energy is dissipated by the XPD in
the controlled piping system. The energy dissipated in the piping system is
dependent on the thickness of the XPD and the input ground motion.   

F.Nateghi-E et al, (2008)  Investigated the behaviour of filled accordion
Metallic damper FMAD, as a
supplemental passive energy absorption device for seismic design and seismic
retrofitting of structures in application of the FMAD in base isolation and
chevron bracing in frame stories. A hysteretic system including of accordion
thin-walled metallic tube has been suggested for this damper. Finite elements
model and nonlinear dynamic analysis have been used in their studies; they
found that Accordion metallic damper can be used for retrofitting the existing
structures against the earthquake. Raul Oscar Curadelli
and Jorge Daniel Riera  (2004)
investigate the effectiveness of metallic dampers in building under seismic
excitation. It proved that seismic retrofitting and new design of frame
building structure, external energy 
dissipation system may be advantageously used.  In 1977 first time   Robinson W.H. and Tucker A. G. did the
experimental study on lead extrusion damper. There after (1993) W. J  cousins and T.E. Porritt suggest some
improvement in lead extrusion damper. The lead extrusion damper proved
efficient at different temperature. The characteristic of lead extrusion damper
have not  been affected with the
increased number of cycle.  C. C. Patel
(2017) investigate the response behaviour of two parallel structures coupled by
lead extrusion damper  and found
effective in seismic response reduction of adjacent structure.           

B. FRICTION DAMPER   

Friction damper are simple and inexpensive friction
damper consist of series of steel plates which are specially treated to develop
most reliable friction. Friction damper utilizes the mechanism of solid
friction that develops between two solid bodies sliding relative

Fig 2. Friction damper

to one another to provide desired energy
dissipation.    Plates are clamped together with bolts and
allowed to slip at predetermined load.  The
performance of friction damper is not affected by temperature, and stiffness
degradation against aging. Pall et al (1979) conducted static
and dynamic test on verity of sliding elements with different surface
treatments. During seismic excitations, friction damper slips at predetermined
optimum load and dissipate major portion of seismic energy. In 1987 Filiatrault
and Cherry states some limitation of Palls friction damper that Palls damper
was only valid   if slip during every cycle. They proposed a
detailed macroscopic model using brake lining pads at intersection of cross
braces which improve the physical properties of damper.   Some alternate friction damper designs are
proposed in some resent literature. Roik et al., (1988) investigate the use of
three stage friction grip elements. The recent friction damper manufactured by
Fluor Daniel known1 as EDR i.e. Energy Dissipating restraint. It consists of
steel compression wedges and bronze friction wedges to transform the axial
spring force into normal pressure acting outward on the cylinder wall. In 1992  Suzuki et al., investigated the  performance of friction damper on piping
system. In 2006 bi-directly interaction of friction force was suggested by
Bakre et al.,   has significant effects on response of the
piping on friction support. In 2001 Y. L. Xu et.al,. investigate the use of
semi active friction damper in to control the response of wind exited truss
tower. That was the  first known attempt  compared with passive friction dampers, the
semi-active friction dampers are more robust and versatile for improving both
serviceability and strength performances of wind excited large truss towers. In
2002 Imad H Mualla investigates the performance of steel frames with new
friction damper during seismic event.  The
application of the new FDD presents
a feasible alternative to the conventional ductility-based earthquake-resistant
design both for new construction and for upgrading existing structures. A.V.
Bhaskarao and  R.S. Jangid (2005) did the
seismic analysis of connected structure with friction damper. In 2000 Ceredic
Marsh investigated the application of friction in conjunction
with rigid structural frames, either steel or concrete, it gives the most
economical system to provide a degree of protection against seismic activity
for framed medium-rise buildings. Improvements in the dampers and their
utilization are under continuous study and other friction devices for other
types of building are being developed.

 

C.  VISCOELASTIC
DAMPER

Viscoelastic damper includes viscoelastic
solid damper and viscoelastic fluid damper. In 1969 Mahmoodi presented the
concept of vicoelastic damper. 

Fig 3 Visco Elastic Damper

 Viscoelastic
damper comprises two viscoelastic layers bonded between three parallel rigid
surface. In 1970 this type of damper was used in New York for controlling wind
vibration in twin towers of world trade centre. The experimental and analytical
study of Zhang said that viscoelastic damper can reduce the response in steel
structure effectively. Seismic application of VED begins in 1993 for a seismic
retrofit project of 13-story Santa Clara County building in San Jose, A full
scale vibration test was performed by Lai et al., (1995) design procedure for
damper was developed by scaling up the size of viscoelastic material.  Viscous damping walls were recently used for a
seismic protection in newly constructed SUT- building in Shizuka city, Japan as
described by Miyazaki and Mitsusaka (1992) . Total 170 damping walls are
employed within the steel frame. Based on time history analysis the damping
walls reduce response by 70-80%..  K.C. Chang et al., (1988) investigate on the
seismic analysis and design of structure with viscoelastic damper. the design
procedure used by them proves economic and safe 
  alternative for seismic
resistant structure under seismic design regulation. Lin and chopra in 2003 studied the response of
one story system with viscoelastic damper attached to flexible braces and fluid
viscous damper attached to rigid chevron braces. They showed that asymmetric
system with this damper can be estimated with sufficient accuracy for design. B
Samali et al,. 2006 investigate the uses of viscoelastic damper in reducing
wind and earthquake inducing motion of structure. Examples of earler installations were given
some detail to clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of
viscoelastic damper as viable, cost effective and maintenance free dsmper
system to control the motion of dynamically sensitive structures subjected to
environmental loads. M. P.
Singh et al,. did the  seismic analysis of structure with
viscoelastic damper on mathematical model. It seen that VE damper effective in
control of seismic response of structure. 

 

D.  VISCOUS DAMPER-

Viscous damper works on fluid flow through
orifice. By adding fluid viscous dampers, the energy input from a transient is absorbed.
Fluid damping technology was validated for seismic use by extensive testing in
the period 1990-1993.In 2003 Robert Mcnamara and Douglas Taylor investigate the
application of fluid viscous damper in high rise structure to suppress the
anticipated wind induced acceleration.

Fig 4 Viscous damper

 

The application of viscous damper proved very
cost effective. Yukihiro
Tokuda  and Kenzo Taga (2008) worked on
structure in which vicious damper installed in basement soft story. The paper
introduce in practical use of viscous damper. In 2012  D.  Naarkhede and R. Sinha did the experiment to
evaluate the performance of viscous damper for shock loads. They discuss the
mathematical formulation and relative performance of structure subjected to
short duration pulse excitation. Samuele Infanti et al,. described the technology of viscous
damper in high rise building. Their study 
show that viscous dampers can be effectively used in different
configurations to reduce the response of high-rise buildings to wind and
earthquake  In 2015 Jinaxing chen et al,. investigate  the use of viscous damper in high rise
structure for seismic response control. The seismic responses of the structure with viscous dampers
are studied by time-history analysis. The investigation result showed that
viscous dampers substantially reduce the structural dynamic response.

A Ravitheja in 2016 did the seismic
evaluation of multi story RC building with and without fluid Viscous Damper.
The research show that viscous damper effectively reduce the building response
by selecting optimum damping coefficient

CONCLUSION

The use of seismic control system has
increased in these resent years but selecting best damper for reducing
vibration in structure in seismic event. The controlling reduces damage
significantly by increasing the structural safety, serviceability and prevents
the building form collapse during the earthquake. This paper the basic concept
of passive seismic response control devices is mentioned and their resent
development and application are discussed. The experimental and analytical
investigate carried out by various richer clearly demonstrate that the seismic
control method has potential to improve the seismic performance of structure. 

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