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Abstract— This paper presents the concept of
a highly automated vehicle which allows both co-operation and adaption with a
human driver. Enabling highly automated driving has been a
lasting endeavor in traffic research. The concept, referred to as legal safety,
is illustrated for highly automated driving on highways with distance keeping,
intelligent speed adaptation, and lane-changing functionalities. The cluster is
concerned with the role of the road environment in connection with the
introduction of automated driving; in addition to the structural
infrastructure, this also includes the transport and information-based
infrastructure as well as other influences such as weather. Estimating the
impact of automated driving on road safety and on traffic and environmental efficiency
is also extremely important, as is the possible distribution of roles in the
cooperative infrastructure and vehicle network. This system is embedded in
social values and norms, political and economic objectives, legal stipulations
and agreements as well as in the everyday practices of road users.

Index Terms—Introduction,
Human-vehicle Interface, Safety and Validation, Road Infrastructure and
traffic, Social aspects

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xxxx-xxxx/0x/$xx.00 © 200x IEEE        Published by the IEEE Computer
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1   Introduction

T

HIS indroduces
to some of the topics in highly Automated Driving.

Vehicle automation is
proposed as on e of the solutions which will make transport easy, safe, more
comfortable and more environment friendly. It is divided into many sub groups
which include safety, eco friendly, different echnological aspects such as
Radars, Sensors. But mainly sub divided into four groups which have been
described as clusters, namely the Human-Machine interface, the area of functional
validation (function, safety, validation cluster), the aspects of road
infrastructure and traffic and social aspects.

Automated Driving is
not a new phenomenon. Rather, environment sensing systems are being developed
for advanced driver assistance. The already available technologies such as
Adaptive Cruise Control or Lane Departure warning systems are some of the
degrees of automation of continuously automating functions.

The following
paragraphs explain the four topic clusters:

At the human-machine interface particular questions arise in connection
with the possibility of transferring control back to the driver and on the
continuous awareness of the system status.

Whole new requirements arise in the area of function, safety and
validation. Until now the driver has permanently conducted parallel tasks, so
that the systems available have trusted that the driver is immediately
available for corrective intervention and to take over from mechanical control.

The area of road infrastructure and traffic can firstly be established
that vehicle automation will impact all road categories in the long term.
Issues concerning requirements on vehicle and infrastructure due to the higher
speeds driven or which implement even higher levels of automation.

Social aspects are a high-ranking factor when considering the need for
research. Accordingly, individual issues – such as ethical issues – are
addressed in different sections.

 

2   Human-
Machine Interface

2.1 Driver
States

Fundamental
research and experience from plant and flight automation show that high degrees
of automation lead to changes in concentration and vigilance. In view of the
fact that drivers continue to play an important role despite high automation at
least in the transition to a different degree of automation, knowledge of the
availability is of great importance. Even in partially automated systems, the
state of the driver plays an important role. It must be ensured that drivers go
about their continuous monitoring task within the set framework. With respect
to motion sickness, it would at least be desirable to consider the direction of
view before and during manoeuvres. A high temporal priority is therefore to be
placed on the development of technologies to measure the readiness to resume
control; the potential of existing technologies to objectively evaluate the
readiness to resume control should be estimated in order to keep drivers in or
bring them back to the control loop. The conditions which must be satisfied for
drivers to basically resume control over highly automated functions must also
be assessed.

2.2
Interaction between Interfaces

Technological
development promises extensive functionalities. The significance of the
human-machine interface will not diminish (see aviation, for example) because
the requisite system transparency and mode awareness and faultless and fast
interaction will become considerably more important. Therefore, both concepts
for transferring the driving task to the vehicle and returning it to the driver
must be investigated so that drivers may resume control over highly automated
functions.

2.3  Non
Driving States

The increase in automation permits drivers to
engage in non-driving activities which could not be conducted parallel to
manual driving or partial automation.

The properties of auxiliary activities
must therefore be investigated which are suitable for this and may even
positiviely influence the readiness to resume control.

It would be desirable to develop a
manufacturer-independent specification of prototypical standardised auxiliary
tasks for research situations. Auxiliary activities which do not depend on the
vehicle must be also be considered (for example, reading a book,
eating/drinking, devices not interconnected with the vehicle, so-called
“nomadic devices”).

3   Function, Safety, Validation

The focus
of the function, safety and validation cluster is on the validation of
automated driving functions.

Current validation
methods rely on intensive driving trials, and existing safety concepts depend
on people as the fall-back level. If the human is temporarily or completely
absent as overseer, failure probabilities for the automation systems are needed
which can no longer be validated under commercially acceptable conditions in
the driving trial.

The value system
of an automated vehicle becomes particularly clear in dilemma situations when
an accident is certain to occur and it is necessary to weigh up which road user
should benefit or be disadvantaged by influencing the accident events. Great
efforts must be continued to conduct research into technologies, algorithms and
methods for the safe automation of driving functions and bring these to market
maturity.

Assistance systems
have become possible through intensive research and development work into the environment
sensor system, actuators and suitable algorithms for machine cognition ,
decision making and carrying out actions. Germany today takes the leading
position in the area of advanced driver assistance systems due to right
investment by the manufacturers in good time.

The development
and validation of highly and fully automated vehicles is a great technological
and social challenge which requires the joining of many forces.

4   Road
Infrastructure and Traffic

In
addition to the structural infrastructure, that include the transport and
information based infrastructure as well as other influences such as weather.
Furthermore, the effects on road safety, on traffic and environmental
efficiency have to be considered.

     The information based infrastructure
contains the data provided for automated driving and all mechanisms for
generating and updating these data, for data transmission and bi-directional
communication.

     Now we address the traffic issues. The
word traffic comes from the Arabic ‘traffaqa’ which means “slowly walking along
together”. Traffic is complex because of the diversity of it’s participants and
infrastructure. Traffic rules have been developed to promote traffic safety and
efficiency.

     The traffic flow could be modelled as one
condition for determining the effects of automated driving. If future driving
systems are to begin driving autonomously, it is necessary we have an
infrastructure that allows automated vehicle to share with human drivers. A distant
futurewhere both automated and non automated vehicles co-exist needs to be
taken into consideration. The first alternative is to exclusively assign a part
of existing infrastructure to autonomous driving. Another alternative is to
create an entirely separated infrastructure for automated vehicles. Both the
alternates would require a large cost. In order to assess the traffic flow under
the new conditions and to establish possible (macro) economic potential, it is
necessary to examine how previous traffic models could be adapted to the
equipment rates for automated vehicles.  

5 Social Aspects

All road
users are affected by the introduction of highly and fully automated vehicles.
A high degree of acceptance at a societal level and which goes beyond pure user
acceptance is the prerequisite for the successful implementation of the new
vehicles. This applies to vehicles used in passenger transport and commercial
transport.

 In order to
be able to estimate the possible effects of introducing highly and fully
automated vehicles as reliably as possible, concepts for implementation must be
developed early on and tested in scenarios. Specific aspects concern vehicle
control, legal issues, vehicle operation, infrastructures and the form of
interfaces with other modes of transport.

 The
automation of light commercial vehicles and trucks as part of the change to a
highly and fully automated system must also be taken into consideration.

 The highly
and fully automated vehicle produces data and needs data just to guarantee
permanent technical safety.

 Increased
networking creates possibilities for integrating highly and fully automated
vehicles in the transport system in a novel way, for example as part of the
development of “new mobility concepts”. 

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