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ABSTRACT

 

Sleep
problems are pervasive among college students and are related with various
negative results. It is known that college students frequently report
difficulties falling asleep, daytime hyper somnolence, and weariness. In any
case, particular information with respect to regarding the presentation of
sleep disordered symptoms and exact diagnostic prevalence are inadequate.
College students (n = 150) were selected to complete sleep questionnaires. The
pervasiveness of a sleeping disorder was 46% around 32.2% of the college
students experienced have trouble falling sleep on a regular
basis 53.4%
experience the ill effects of here and now rest disease. The majority of the
students have unbalanced resting time, 47.3% have a decent eight hour rest and
around 38% dozes even under 6 hours consistently. 49.7% students announced they
wake up feeling all around rested. The greater part of the students (51.3%)
reported every now and again feel daytime tiredness and restlessness even in
the wake of having an entire eight hour rest. These outcomes propose that rest
dissensions and scatters are predominant among undergrads. Besides, sleep
disorder and rest issues are related with expanded mental and physical
wellbeing objections. Be that as it may, it does give the idea that rest issues
influence scholarly execution. These outcomes propose that sleep disorders are
predominant among undergrads as well as are related with negative
mental/physical wellbeing results.

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TABLE
OF CONTENTS

1.     
Abstract

?

2.     
Introduction

1

2.1  Statement
of The Problem

2

2.2  Objectives
of The Study

3

3.     
Insomnia
Defined

4

4.     
Types
of Insomnia

4

5.     
Causes
of Insomnia

6

6.     
Symptoms
of Insomnia

10

7.     
Risk
Factors

12

8.     
Adverse
Effects of Insomnia

12

9.     
Methodology

14

10.  Findings & Analysis

15

11.  Conclusion

18

12.  References

19

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Insomnia is a sleep disorder which
causes difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep. Having a good night
sleep is an important part of all our lives it allows our body and mind to rest
and our body to re-energize. Without getting a proper good night sleep we wake
up tired and fatigued, our body and mind becomes stressed we feel irritated and
low on energy, thereby, not allowing us to function or be at our best as we
need our body to be. It causes a depressed mood, stress and anxiety. Waking up
tired and not being able to sleep at night are general complaints found among College
students.  Students suffering from
insomnia may have one or more of these symptoms difficulty in falling asleep,
waking up too early in the morning, feeling tired after waking up, waking up
during the night and having trouble going back to sleep.

Insomnia among College students can be
caused by several factors which include unhealthy eating habits, unhealthy
sleeping habits, intake of excessive caffeine, use of cellphones, laptops or
any kinds of screens, stress, and lack of physical activity in their daily
lives. Insomnia can be classified into two types primary and secondary. Primary
insomnia occurs if an individual has problems sleeping which is not caused by
some health condition or some problem. The secondary insomnia occurs when an
individual has sleeping problems because of other reasons such a health
condition like some kind of disease or taking some form of medication.

College students who are affected by
insomnia mostly do not achieve high academic performance and may even risk
failure. This can affect the whole present and future of a student which they
may regret their whole life. Students may not be aware of the fact that their
unhealthy sleeping habits may be cause of their poor performance in college as
students are sleep deprived and may feel drowsiness in the morning. Many think
insomnia is the symptom of other mental disorders like anxiety and depression.
Depression is now common among college students. Insomnia can increase clinical
depression. Improving sleeping patterns and addressing insomnia can increase
the chances of improving depressive symptoms. An article published in the BBC
News (“Insomnia damages relationships”, 2011) stressed that the lack of sleep
needs to be treated as a major health issue.

It is important to identify the medical
and psychological causes before deciding on the treatment for insomnia. It depends
on the type of sleep problem you have. Treatment of insomnia can be done by two
methods which are medication based and non-medication based. There are several
different types of ways which are used for treating insomnia. Many
professionals do not recommend use of medication like sleeping pills for
treating insomnia. Doctors and psychiatrists lay more emphasis on treating the
root of the problem causing insomnia like stress, anxiety, depression and work
load rather than taking medication for treating it.

The purpose of this report is to find
out the prevalence of insomnia among college students. It creates an
understanding of insomnia as well as its causes. It explains the different
types of insomnia found amongst students as well as the possible available
solutions. With an understanding of this, it is possible to understand the sleeping
problems faced by students these days as well as the treatments or solutions available
for them.

STATEMENT OF THE
PROBLEM

To
study the prevalence of insomnia in female college students of Lahore.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The
objectives of this study are

·        
To review the types of insomnia found
among college students.

·        
To investigate the causes of insomnia
among students.

·        
To study how insomnia among students can
be treated.

·        
To find out the prevalence of insomnia
among college students.

 

 

INSOMNIA DEFINED

Insomnia can be defined as the
difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep. It is basically the inadequate
sleep or poor quality of sleep. Insomnia cannot be defined by the number of
hours of sleep a person gets or how long it takes to fall asleep but it is just
a measure of satisfaction with sleep. Individuals vary normally in their need
for and their satisfaction with sleep.

TYPES OF INSOMNIA

There
are two basic types of insomnia primary insomnia and secondary insomnia.

·        
Primary
insomnia:

Primary insomnia occurs when a person
has sleep problems which are not caused by some health condition or any
problem.

·        
Secondary
insomnia:

Secondary insomnia occurs when a person
has sleep problems because of something else, such as a health condition (like
asthma, depression, arthritis, cancer, or heartburn); pain; medication they are
taking; or a substance they are using (like alcohol).

Insomnia also varies in how long it
lasts and how often it occurs. It can be short-term (acute insomnia) or can
last a long time (chronic insomnia). It can also come and go, with periods of
time when a person has no sleep problems. Acute insomnia can last from one
night to a few weeks. Insomnia is called chronic when a person has insomnia at
least three nights a week for a month or longer.

·        
Acute
Insomnia

Acute insomnia is brief and often
happens because of life circumstances (for example, when you can’t fall asleep
the night before an exam or after receiving stressful or bad news). Many people
may have experienced this type of passing sleep disruption, and it tends to
resolve without any treatment.

 

·        
Chronic
insomnia

Chronic insomnia is disrupted sleep that
occurs at least three nights per week and lasts at least three months. Chronic
insomnia disorders can have many causes. Changes in the environment, unhealthy
sleep habits, shift work, other clinical disorders, and certain medications
could lead to a long-term pattern of insufficient sleep. People with chronic
insomnia may benefit from some form of treatment to help them get back to
healthy sleep patterns. Chronic insomnia can be comorbid, meaning it is linked
to another medical or psychiatric issue, although sometimes it’s difficult to
understand this cause and effect relationship.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAUSES OF INSOMNIA

Insomnia can be caused by unhealthy
sleep habits, specific substances, psychiatric and medical conditions, and/or
certain biological factors. Recently, researchers have begun to think about
insomnia as a problem of your brain being unable to stop being awake because
our brain has a sleep cycle and a wake cycle (when one is turned on the other
is turned off). Insomnia can be a problem with either part of this cycle; it
can be too much wake drive or too little sleep drive. It’s important to first
understand what could be causing your sleep difficulties.

Common causes of
insomnia include:

·        
Mental
health disorders: Anxiety disorders, such as
post-traumatic stress disorder, may disrupt your sleep. Awakening too early can
be a sign of depression. Insomnia often occurs with other mental health
disorders as well.

 

·        
Medications:
Many prescription drugs can interfere with sleep, such as certain
antidepressants and medications for asthma or blood pressure. Many
over-the-counter medications such as some pain medications, allergy and cold
medications, and weight-loss products contain caffeine and other stimulants
that can disrupt sleep.

 

·        
Medical
conditions: Conditions linked with insomnia include
chronic pain, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, asthma, gastro esophageal reflux
disease (GERD), overactive thyroid, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s
disease.

 

·        
Sleep-related
disorders: Sleep apnea causes you to stop breathing
periodically throughout the night, interrupting your sleep. Restless legs
syndrome causes unpleasant sensations in your legs and an almost irresistible
desire to move them, which may prevent you from falling asleep.

 

·        
Caffeine
and nicotine: Coffee, tea, cola and other caffeinated
drinks are stimulants. Drinking them in the late afternoon or evening can keep
you from falling asleep at night. Nicotine in tobacco products is another
stimulant that can interfere with sleep. Alcohol may help you fall asleep, but
it prevents deeper stages of sleep and often causes awakening in the middle of
the night.

 

·        
Changes
in sleep patterns: Sleep often becomes less restful as you
age, so noise or other changes in your environment are more likely to wake you.
With age, your internal clock often advances, so you get tired earlier in the
evening and wake up earlier in the morning. But older people generally still
need the same amount of sleep as younger people do.

Changes in activity:
You may be less physically or socially active. A lack of activity can interfere
with a good night’s sleep. Also, the less active you are, the more likely you
may be to take a daily nap, which can interfere with sleep at night.

 

 

Chronic insomnia

Chronic insomnia is usually a result of
stress, life events or habits that disrupt sleep. Treating the underlying cause
can resolve the insomnia, but sometimes it can last for years.

Common
causes of chronic insomnia include:

·        
Stress:
Concerns about work, school, health, finances or family can keep your mind
active at night, making it difficult to sleep. Stressful life events or trauma
— such as the death or illness of a loved one, divorce, or a job loss — also
may lead to insomnia.

 

·        
Travel
or work schedule:

Your circadian rhythms
act as an internal clock, guiding such things as your sleep-wake cycle,
metabolism and body temperature. Disrupting your body’s circadian rhythms can
lead to insomnia. Causes include jet lag from traveling across multiple time
zones, working a late or early shift, or frequently changing shifts.

·        
Poor
sleep habits:

Poor sleep habits
include an irregular bedtime schedule, naps, stimulating activities before bed,
an uncomfortable sleep environment, and using your bed for work, eating or
watching TV. Computers, TVs, video games, smartphones or other screens just
before bed can interfere with your sleep cycle.

 

·        
Eating
too much late in the evening:

Having a light snack
before bedtime is OK, but eating too much may cause you to feel physically
uncomfortable while lying down. Many people also experience heartburn, a
backflow of acid and food from the stomach into the esophagus after eating,
which may keep you awake.

 

 

 

 

SYMTOMS OF INSOMNIA

Insomnia itself may be a symptom of an
underlying medical condition. However, there are many signs and symptoms that
are associated with insomnia:

·        
Difficulty falling asleep at night.

·        
Waking during the night.

·        
Waking earlier than desired.

·        
Still feeling tired after a night’s
sleep.

·        
Daytime fatigue or sleepiness.

·        
Irritability, depression, or anxiety.

·        
Poor concentration and focus.

·        
Being uncoordinated, an increase in
errors or accidents.

·        
Tension headaches (feels like a tight
band around head).

·        
Difficulty socializing.

·        
Gastrointestinal symptoms.

·        
Worrying about sleeping.

Sleep deprivation can be another
symptom. The sleep deprived person may wake up not feeling fully awake and
refreshed, and may have a sensation of tiredness and sleepiness throughout the
day. Insomnia could be a result of behavioral pattern (for example, your
nighttime routines do not cue your body for sleep, or your sleep schedule is
out of sync with your biological clock), or it could be link to another medical
or psychiatric issue that needs to be addressed. The duration of insomnia is
important. Doctors consider insomnia chronic if it occurs at least three nights
per week for three months or longer. Regardless of its cause, if insomnia has
become a regular occurrence, talking to your doctor about treatment may be a
good idea.

You may also want to consider whether
and to what degree insomnia is affecting your life. If you feel fatigued or
have low energy during the day and it gets in the way of your productivity and
enjoyment of friends, family, or hobbies that probably means you could benefit
from talking to your doctor. If you’ve tried on your own to make adjustments to
your sleep routines and it hasn’t worked, you may want to enlist the help of a
sleep specialist.

 

Risk
Factors among College Students:

A
sample of around 150 female students of various colleges was analyzed. The
undergraduates inspected detailed certain Hazard factor that goes about as
impetus in rest issue. Students announced having issue in keeping up a variable
sleep time (change in sleep time). Every one of the student revealed having
cell phones in their room. The continuous utilization of cell phone in bed is
the factor that impacted their sporadic rest, greater part of the understudies
set their cellphone on vibrate or silent mode to maintain a strategic distance
from mid night arousing and few let their cellphone on during the night. The
other factor which help in the commonness of a sleeping disorder is untreated
rest issue, students experience the ill effects of restlessness once in a while
take solution to beat their concern. Around half of the undergraduates detailed
Scholarly factors like exams, class introductions and assignments which cause
pressure and improve lack of sleep.

Adverse
Effects of Insomnia Among College Students

The results of poor rest quality rest
issue in undergraduate students can be intense. Restlessness has been related
with deficiency in scholastic exhibitions. The understudies revealed with
sporadic resting designs are confronting a negative effect on their scholastic
exhibitions which brought about low class participation. Dominant part of
the understudies inspected with rest issue have hindered memory
confronted challenges to recall things and perform well in the test.
The effect of sleep deprivation indicated antagonistic impact on the
emotional wellness of the students revealed, roughly 50% of the students
exhibited manifestations of melancholy, tension and aggravated state of mind.
The revealed students who met the criteria of rest issue demonstrated physical
wellbeing grumbles, numerous among these students confronted day time
exhaustion and challenges in performing psychological assignments.

 

METHODOLOGY

The study was conducted on a sample of 150
female college students of Lahore. A survey
structured questionnaire was used to evaluate and access the prevalence of
insomnia. The questionnaire consisted of 3 sections, first section involved
general demographic characteristics, the second section involved insomnia
severity index scale to access prevalence of insomnia among students. The third section involved several questions related
to irregular sleep pattern, cause for sleeplessness and effect of insomnia on
academic activates.

Insomnia was the
primary outcome variable. ISI (insomnia severity index) was used to assess
insomnia. First, 7 separate scores corresponding to the seven sleep domains
were generated. Second, for each student a single global sum score which ranged
from 0 to 28 was constructed using the 7-component score. Finally, the student
was categorized as “insomniac” if the ISI sum score was >14 and coded as
“1”; the student was categorized as “normal sleeper” if the ISI sum score was
?14 and coded as “0.” Data was entered in MS excel and was analyzed using SPSS (IBM
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). Categorical
variables (such as age) were represented in percentages, mean, variance and
standard deviation. The association
between sleep quality and stress was examined using the Pearson’s Chi-square
test.

 

 

 

 

 

RESULTS
AND ANALYSIS

A total of 150 female
students of different colleges responded to the survey structured
questionnaire. A majority of students (46%) had a mean age 21.3 years (SD

 range= 15-24). The survey constitutes 6 disciplines (e.g. Nutrition, Interior designing, HDFS, arts
& textiles etc.).  The prevalence of
insomnia was 46% (n=150) and the mean ISI score was 10.6 (SD± 6.31).Around
32.2% of students have trouble falling sleep on a regular basis and 53.4%
suffer from short-term sleep illness. More than half of the students have
asymmetrical sleeping time, 47.3% have a good 8 hour sleep and about 38% sleeps
even less than 6 hours every night. 49.7% students reported they wake up
feeling well rested. More than half of the students (51.3%) students frequently
feel daytime tiredness & sleeplessness even after having a full eight hour
sleep. (Table.1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characteristics

n=150

 

Ages

 

 

15-18

9

6%

18-21

70

46%

21-24

62

41%

24 and above

6

4%

Disciplines

 

 

Food & Nutrition

42

66.60%

Interior Design

25

16%

HDFS

30

20%

Textiles & Clothing

19

12.60%

Art & Design

19

12.60%

Home Economics

15

10%

Trouble falling sleep

 

 

Yes

72

48%

No

35

23%

Sometime

43

28.60%

Bed Time Activity

 

 

Use of mobile

100

66.60%

Study

27

18%

TV

11

7.30%

Lie In Bed

8

5.30%

 
Walk around House

4

2.60%

Sleep Time

 

 

Less Than 4 Hours

3

2%

4-6 Hours

57

38%

6-8 Hours

71

47.30%

More than 8 Hours

19

12.60%

Day Time Tiredness

 

 

Yes

77

51.30%

Sometime

63

42%

No

10

6.60%

Table.1

 

 

Students reported few
academic factors that affect their sleeplessness, 44.5% reported exams are the
major reason, and 12.6% & 12.6% reported having assignments and class
presentations affecting their sleep quality. Nearly 66.6% reported use of
mobile phone in bed is the major cause of their irregular bed time, 18%
reported late night study (table 1). Approximately half of the students (52%)
wakeups occasionally after falling asleep at night and 34% often have a
disturbed sleep.

Other  Factors

 

 

Academic Factors

 

 

Assignments

19

12.60%

Exams

67

44.50%

Class Presentation

19

12.60%

Others

45

30%

Bed Time

 

 

before 10 PM

4

2.60%

10-11 PM

12

8%

11-12 AM

54

36%

12-1 AM

61

40.60%

after 1 Am

19

12.60%

Difficulty Staying Asleep

 

 

Yes

51

34%

No

21

14%

Sometimes

78

52%

Table
2

 

More than half (71.4%)
reported their sleeping disorder started in college and 42% reported their
class activities are greatly affected by insomnia, majority of students (63%)
believe that college work pressure is the major reason behind their sleep disorder(insomnia).
The prevalence of stress among students 58.6%, there was a statistically
significant association between stress and sleep (p

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