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AbstractBoring of machines is also possible with different new technologies of the computer, but the CNC design is the practical way of boring in the milling machines. Applications and algorithm of the milling cutter in the boring cycle are reviewed through qualitative research by analyzing the different peer-reviewed journals and research studies. The applications of milling cutter possess high value and effectiveness in the boring of a milling machine as industries are trying to utilize the CNC designing for the demands of the milling cutter in boring.Keywords: CNC designing, boring of machine, milling cutter1. INTRODUCTIONThe usage of computer technologies is increasing more intensively for the modern manufacturing processes 1. To produce or design the parts of any machine, companies or individual use the tool of CNC machines which help them in designing the parts of the machine more effectively. CNC machines are knowns as computer numerical control, which help individuals in producing or designing of machined parts. However, these machines operate through computer control whereas; the movements of the cutting tool are directed to NC program. NC is referred as the numeric control that is used for mechanical automation or levers for manual controls.Numeric control is also referred as the machine tools, which are automated for different operations of machines using the encoded program commands 2. Some researchers acknowledged that NC machines were built through modification of existing tools, which were used for mobbing the system controls and integrating motors. Industries or individuals use CNC machines for cutting the parts of machine effectively. Some research studies mentioned that quality of different machined parts depends upon how effectively cutting parameter are selected and how effectively the parts are being cut. NC program is an effective programing language, which contains a list of codes that are easily understood by the controller of CNC machine. Some of the researchers stated that NC programing had helped industries in designing large machines as it is time-consuming and monotonous 3.Improper or incorrect NC programming could also lead to shortening of tool lifetime, wasting of production time and wasting of raw materials. It can be stated that modern CNC had high efficiency and automated in nature as it has the different contemporary programs. CAD and CAM are the key parameters that are used for CNC as both CAD (computer-aided design) and CAM (computer-aided manufacturing) are used for the end-to-end design of components with 2D and 3D Display. However, to operate the CNC machines, a computerized file is required with a program of NC that can be used for the command interpretation via postprocessor. The programmers can fix their manufacturing routines through the machines of modern computer numeric control that are known as the cycles. However, the pre-programmed tasks can also be performed through these routines, which make the manufacturing process of machines more efficient and easier 4. Milling machines have the similar appearance of drilling machines but cover the different functions and utilization. Other researchers stated that cutting surfaces in the milling machines are also utilized which expands the overall functionality of milling machines and also reduces the need for extremely large inventories which coves different tools of cutting 1-4. However, researchers also stated that there are relatively high variations regarding cutting tools which are used in the modern milling machines such as; face, end, and ball-mills. These tools help industries and individuals in different operations such as; planning, drilling, die sinking, and contouring. Through this wide range of utilizations, the skilled machinist can efficiently manage the different machining tasks, which are commonly encountered 5. It is mentioned that milling machines are not much versatile; therefore, industries used the rotary filing. The process of rotary filing is recognized as the effective process through which a specialized file is rotated with the surface of work-piece. Through the original utilization of round type file in the typical lathe, industries produce the rotary filer for the dedicated machines 6. Moreover, reciprocating files are similar to rotary files regarding functions but are historically distinct, as reciprocating files do not have any influence on the development of true mills as these files emerge later.The CNC designing covers different cycles on the machining centers such as; horizontal boring machines, drilling machines, milling machines gridding machines and turning machines. This research will analyse and review the boring cycle of CNC design development. Different industries use canned cycles that is usually pre-prepared by the CNC unit manufacturer. However, it can be stated that different milling and drilling machines cover the different canned cycles, which help these machines in different applications. Different engineers or designers of machines use canned cycles for boring, reaming, tapping, drilling of holes and deep drilling. Researchers claimed that milling machines possess the effective utilization of canned cycles for contour milling, thread cutting, rectangular stud milling, face milling, and circular stud milling. It can be stated that canned cycles are effectively used in designing the long hole or slot in the circle and a rectangular and circular pocket 7.Aims and ObjectivesThe aim of this research the study is to review and analyze the different applications of the milling cutter in a Boring cycle for the design development of computer numerical control CNC. To achieve the aim of this study, the research will consider the following objectives. To make the effective designing of milling cutter through computer numerical control designTo analyze the different applications of the milling cutter in the boring cycle.To discuss the algorithm of the user-defined boring cycle for designing and boring of a milling cutter.2. LITERATURE REVIEWMilling CutterMilling cutter is identified as the cutter, which is used on different machines. Milling is referred as the cutting and shaping of materials in the desired designs and parts. However, the operations of milling are performed on the gear cutting machines, machining centers and on milling machines. Milling machines are recognized as the complex devices, which perform the several operations. However, industries or designed engineers perform the actual shaping of the part through a cutting tool that is attached to the spindle, which delivers the rotational forces. There are two types of milling machines which are operated through either manually or through computer numerically controlled CNC. Milling machines cover the spindles that are either vertically aligned or horizontally aligned. For different complex operations, industries have more preference to use milling machine with CNC 6-8.The milling is referred as the processes, which are used for transforming the shapes in an effective manner for removing the material stock to generated part. However, it can be observed that substantial force is generated among the contact of work piece and generating tools during the transformation of shapes. It can be stated that CNC programming is the effective way of operating the milling cutters. However, the program of CNC covers the specific codes of machines and specific instructions. Some researchers claimed that there is no efficient cycles are available for the counter-boring holes using a milling cutter 9. The designing of CNC in boring cycles is performed through the effective working of general programming algorithms. The algorithm can be applied for boring or counter boring as many holes are of different diameters using the standard milling cutter. For boring cycle, the algorithm of user-defined cycle G888 is used which help CNC in counter boring holes to achieve the diameters of the specific counter bore with effective tolerance and good surface finishing. This algorithm has effective values as it enables the counter boreholes on the circular pattern and straight-line pattern 6, 7.Effectiveness of G-Code Canned CyclesThe canned cycles cover three different cycles of XY, YZ, and ZX that covers the G81 to G89 coding for the canned cycles. These codings are used to generate holes and boring using the milling cutter. The boring of the milling machines is performed through coding of canned cycles. All these codings have the high influence of milling machines as canned cycles are performed by selecting the current plane. Researchers mentioned that all three planes could be selected, but for the boring cycles XY plane is considered more usually because the selection of XZ and YZ results in the analogous behavior. However, another researcher mentioned that rotational axis words could also be used in the canned cycles, but individuals and designing engineer try to omit them.Following are the errors that rise at different conditions in the Canned Cycle.Table 1: Canned CycleConditionErrorsX, Y and Z words are all missing during a canned cycle.Single P number is required, and a negative P number is used;An L number is used that does not evaluate to a positive integer;Rotational axis motion is used during a canned cycle;Inverse time feed rate is active during a canned cycle;Cutter radius compensation is active during a canned cycle.When the XY plane is active, the Z number is sticky, and it is an error if:The Z number is missing, and the same canned cycle was not already active;The R number is less than the Z number.When the XZ plane is active, the Y number is sticky and it is an error if:The Y number is missing and the same canned cycle was not already active;The R number is less than the Y number.When the YZ plane is active, the X number is sticky, and it is an error if:The X number is missing, and the same canned cycle was not already active;The R number is less than the X number.If the boring is done by using the rotational axis than the numbers should be same as current position numbers because any movement of rotational axis causes an error in the boring. Moreover, the NC coding covers the X, Y, R and Z numbers in the canned cycles, which shows their position. R is referred as the retracted position along the axis, which is perpendicular to the selected plane for the boring. There is a sticky number in the canned cycle, which is used in the same cycles. For example, if a number is used in multiple lines of code in a row than engineer has the prospect of using it once such as; the first time the number is written, and then it is optional for adding on the next lines. To have the sticky number in the programming saves time as it keeps their value on the overall program. Retract position along axis R is always the sticky number 8, 9. In the incremental distance mode, when XY plane is selected in the canned cycle then Z is treated as the increment in the Z-axis position and X, Y and R should be treated as the increment in the current position. However, the selection of YZ and XZ plane is always treated as the analogous words. The X, Y, R, and Z numbers have the absolute position in the current coordinate system within absolute distance mode. Moreover, L number also has the high importance of the canned cycle, as it is optional and shows the number of repeats. According to L should not be 0 in the canned cycle and it is mostly used in the incremental distance mode as the same sequence of motions is repeated in the spaced places. However, for the absolute distance mode, it is required to have L>1 as it shows the repetition of the same cycle multiple times in the same places. Hence, it can be stated that L is not sticky within canned cycle programming 10. 3. METHODOLOGYThe method of research is the procedure owned and done by researchers to collect information or data and investigate the data that has been obtained. The research method gives an overview of the research design, which includes among others: the procedure or steps to be taken, the time of the research, the data source, and in what way the data obtained and then processed and analyzed. For reviewing the applications of the milling cutter in a boring cycle for CNC designing development, the research will cover the qualitative research method. The qualitative research will be efficient in collecting the data as it covers the review of different research journals and publishes which can be helpful for reviewing the applications of milling cutter effectively 11. The process of research and understanding is based on a methodology that investigates a social phenomenon and human problems. In this study, the researchers create a complex picture, examine the words, detailed reports from the views of respondents and conduct studies in a natural situation while the qualitative methodology is a research procedure that produces descriptive data in the form of written and oral words 12.4. DISCUSSIONThe Algorithm of Boring Cycle for CNC Design In the boring cycle of CNC design development, the canned cycle is used for boring. The coding of CNC is written with the algorithm of canned cycle G88. This cycle covers the utilization of P word, which specified the total number of seconds to dwell, and is intended for boring. The program of G88 has X~ Y~ Z~ A~ R~ L~ P~ which shows what different actions are performed through this cycle. The G88 cycle covers the preliminary motion and moves the Z-axis at the current feed rate to Z position. Moreover, this cycle also stops the spindle turning and stops the program so that operator can retract the spindle manually. The algorithm of canned cycles covers the G88, which stores in the CNC unit. However, for describing the route of the milling cutter, the programmer is required to call the particular cycle and filling within a single block of parameters in contrast with several blocks. It can be stated that during the execution of the program that is used for boring, the buffer page does not display the subroutine and the operator cannot adjust its content. Therefore, the letter is used for passing the values in the global parameters for the canned cycle for boring the milling cutter. Letter A and B are the values that store in different parameters P201 and P202. The method, which is used in the creation of statements for canned cycle G888 for boring with a standard milling cutter, is described more precisely through the potential algorithm. However, there is also a concurrent algorithm in which parameters are similar such as Letter A is for End mill diameter or milling cutter diameter (P201), Letter B shows the initial hole diameter (P202), Letter D describes, the final counter-bore diameter (P204), Letter X  and Y coordinates centers for initial hole in the X-axis and Y-axis (P224) and (P225). Furthermore, Letter R shows the level of approach in a canned cycle within the Z-axis direction (P218), Z shows the depth of counter bore diameter (P226), and E shows the level of retraction at Z-axis direction (P205). Moreover, all the calculation and compiled formulas are taken as input through the potential algorithm. These formulas are used for the controlling purpose of milling center cutter movements. Hence, it can be stated that the boring of milling cutter can be efficiently managed through the canned cycle algorithm of G88 1-8.Applications of Milling CutterThere are two various applications of milling that provides the help in boring the different surfaces. The two major applications of milling cutter are End Milling and Convention milling. The end milling covers metal removal process, and this is gained by feeding any work piece in a cutter, which is revolving. The materials are removed as chips by the cutter. The reason for using end mills is the production of precise holes and shapes on a turning or milling machine. The paramount process is the selection of correct milling cutters with the lathes or machining cutters. The end mills are present in several materials and styles. For the extended tool requirement, titanium coated end mills are used. Successfully applying end mills is based on how appropriate is the tool supported or held by the tool holder. For the achievement of good outcomes, it is imperative that the placement of end mill in the tool holder is carried concentrically. The selection of the end mill is carried out for the following reasons 9.Face MillingIt is used for those areas that are small faced have shallow cut depth, and the surface, which is produced by this method is scratchy. Woodruff KeywaysIn the production of woodruff keyways, the single cutter is utilized in a plunge operation in a straight manner. Keyway ProductionIn keyway production, for the production of the quality keyway, two separate end mills are used. Specialty CuttingThe specialty cutting is comprised of milling of surfaces, which are tapered for the dovetail production and forming T shaped slots.  Cavity Die WorkIt usually involves the finish cut and plunging of the pocket in the die of steel, and it is required to produce the shapes, which are of three dimensions. Finishing cutting for this application requires an end mill of ball type. End MillingEnd milling further covers the climb milling and plunge milling. Climb milling provides direction of the cutter. The cutter is meant to climb in the work piece for reliving the requirements of the forces. The benefits of this end milling are that it is associated with an increment of life of the tool and it is termed as down milling in some cases. Figure 1: End MillingPlunge-Cutting It is associated with axial feeding into a part, and the movement of the machine is in the Z-axis direction. It is associated with the direct plunging, and the direction of plunge feeding is in the axial direction, and for this purpose, end mill with center cutting is required.  Figure 2: Plunge CuttingConventional MillingAs the cutter can push the work piece away from the part, therefore, feeding force is increased. It can be used as the first choice for manual machining. The cutting force runs opposite to the feed direction in the conventional milling. There is a constant pressure, which can be maintained and has no major effect on the cutting process. However, the major problem with the conventional milling is the cutter rubs opposite to the work piece. This problem has the high influence over conventional milling cutter as it reduces the accuracy of cutting and life of the cutter. There are various modern milling machines have been introduced which have the systems of anti-backlashing systems to counteract these problems. Moreover, the conventional milling has the significant advantage when machining the materials with work hardening properties. Conventional Milling further covers the two different types of applications that are; Ramp Cut and Peripheral Milling 10.Figure 3: Conventional MillingRamp CutIt is associated with axial feeding and movement of machine occurs in the z-axis direction with an additional axis, and the center cutting mill is required. Figure 4: Ramp CutPeripheral MillingIt is associated with machining of edge surface and is carried out by the presentation of the workpiece to the periphery or circumference of the milling cutter.Hence, these overall applications of milling cutter have the high efficiency in boring cycle CNC design. The boring cycle of CNC design can be implemented in all these applications as it covers the programming of CNC design. The programming of CNC design is as follow, which is used for boring with the milling cutter. The programming covers the cutting of hole according to the diameter and surface of the machine. The figure below shows the CNC programming for boring with the milling cutter. Figure 5: Programming of CNC Design for Boring Cycle5. CONCLUSIONReviewing the milling cutter applications of boring cycle covers the different algorithms and process of milling machines that are used for boring. Two main applications of end- and conventional- milling in the boring cycle for CNC design cover the canned cycle. Hence, it can be stated that all these applications of milling cutter can be used while boring of any machine through the programming of CNC design development.6. REFERENCESSpitzenberger, K. (2013). U.S. Patent No. 8,434,974. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Kalpakjian, S., & Schmid, S. R. (2014). Manufacturing engineering and technology (p. 913). Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Pearson. Abbas, A. T. M. (2012). Enhanced CNC machines capabilities by adding circular patterns cycle. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 13(10), 1753-1758.Sheth, S. N., & Rathour, A. N. (2014). Development of canned cycle for CNC milling machine. Int J Eng Res Gen Sci, 2(4), 71-9. Murthy, V. S. S., & Sreenivas, P. (2013). CNC Part Programming and Cost Analysis on Vertical Machining Centre (VTC). International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), 3(4), 2250-2261.Farin, G. (2014). Curves and surfaces for computer-aided geometric design: a practical guide. Elsevier.Stevens, B. L., Lewis, F. L., & Johnson, E. N. (2015). Aircraft control and simulation: dynamics, controls design, and autonomous systems. John Wiley & Sons.Betts, J. T. (2010). Practical methods for optimal control and estimation using nonlinear programming. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.Bol, J. C., Kramer, S., & Maas, V. S. (2016). How control system design affects performance evaluation compression: The role of information accuracy and outcome transparency. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 51, 64-73.Han, J., Wang, L., Wang, H., & Cheng, N. (2012). A new thermal error modeling method for CNC machine tools. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 62(1-4), 205-212.Kumar, R. (2014). Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. Sage.Silverman, D. (Ed.). (2016). Qualitative research. Sage.

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