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AbstractWe live in an era of computer technology which is running by the cyber network where we can get any information by just clicking or typing. With the updating of technology, cybercrime is also increasing in all the sectors. Cybercrime is such kind of activity in where some technologically advanced people stealing others valuable data and documents, hacking bank account, creating malware/virus and spreading them, bombing mail, spreading spam messages and phishing sites and so on. It is necessary to prevent the cybercrime and fight back to these types of culprits to save the people. Where we here the term “Cybercrime” our focus is gone on “Cybersecurity”. This paper gives a detailed information all about cybercrime and its properties and how can we prevent cybercrime and control its internal security.  Introduction :The advantages of technology and the internet have led more criminals to use cyberspace to commit crimes. The threat of cybercrime is increasing as globalization continues to spread across the world. While the impact of globalization has led to amazing, new discoveries throughout the world, Internet connectivity has also made cybercrime easier. America and the rest of the world have become more reliant on technology and use it in more aspects of their lives, technology-users make themselves more vulnerable to cyber attacks. Globalization and the growing use of computers in the world have given people a motive to learn more about computing and become more knowledgeable as programmers. As these people learn more, there is a risk that they will use their new intelligence to commit cybercrimes.Definition of cybercrime:”Cybercrime” means any criminal or other offense that is facilitated by or involves the use of electronic communications or information systems, including any device or the Internet or any one or more of them. Moreover, Cybercrime encompasses criminal actions that target computer, internet, or network utility, damaging functionality or infiltrating systems and processes.Why do people commit computer crimes?1. For financial gainCriminal gangs are well-organized and operate on a commercial basis – there is a supply chain, those that steal data are unlikely to be the same criminals who commit the identity theft and fraud. The dark web provides a marketplace for stolen credentials – with those that have stolen personal data selling it on to those who wish to commit fraud.Cyber-attacks with financial demands. A modern take on blackmail, this can affect organizations of all sizes as well as individuals. There are many variations — for example, hackers take over a victim’s computer and freeze it, they then offer to reinstate access after a ransom has been paid. Another variation lead to a recent case where guests at a hotel in Austria were prevented from entering their rooms until a ransom had been paid – the hotel is reportedly removing electronic locks accessed with cards and reverting to old-fashioned keys!2. To make a political or social pointHacktivism involves breaking into a system for political or social reasons. Until relatively recently, this was seen as the domain of underground organizations such as Anonymous. The recent US election has put a focus on the role that governments might play in furthering their aims through hacking activity.Many businesses may feel that they are unlikely to be a target for political or social hactivists, though it is well to be aware that the targets of these attacks vary greatly. If someone objects to your operations, you could find yourself at the wrong end of a hacktivist attack.3. For the intellectual challengeThis type of hacker plays to the stereotype of the socially awkward loner who lives in a virtual world and turns to hacking for both the intellectual challenge and the adrenaline rush of breaking into a network.Those who hack for intellectual stimulation are not necessarily criminals. They could be “white hat” hackers who help organizations to explore their vulnerabilities so that they can put defenses in place.While white hat hackers work with or for companies and are a force for good, other hackers motivated by intellectual challenge can cause harm. While they may not have bad intentions hackers, particularly the inexperienced who are often referred to as ‘script kiddies’ can cause damage during their incursions and leave systems vulnerable to those with ill intent. Categorization of Cyber CrimeCyber crimes are broadly categorized into three categories, namely crime against1.      Individual2.      Property3.      GovernmentEach category can use a variety of methods and the methods used vary from one criminal to another.Individual: This type of cybercrime can be in the form of cyberstalking, distributing pornography, trafficking and “grooming”. Today, law enforcement agencies are taking this category of cybercrime very seriously and are joining forces internationally to reach and arrest the perpetrators.Property: Just like in the real world where a criminal can steal and rob, even in the cyber world criminals resort to stealing and robbing. In this case, they can steal a person’s bank details and siphon off money; misuse the credit card to make numerous purchases online; run a scam to get naïve people to part with their hard-earned money; use malicious software to gain access to an organization’s website or disrupt the systems of the organization. The malicious software can also damage software and hardware, just like vandals damage property in the offline world.Government: Although not as common as the other two categories, crimes against a government is referred to as cyber terrorism. If successful, this category can wreak havoc and cause panic amongst the civilian population. In this category, criminals hack government websites, military websites or circulate propaganda. The perpetrators can be terrorist outfits or unfriendly governments of other nations. How criminals do it?When any crime is committed over the Internet it is referred to as a cybercrime. There are many ways to do cyber crimes and the most common ones are explained below:Hacking: This is a type of crime wherein a person’s computer is broken into so that his personal or sensitive information can be accessed. In the United States, hacking is classified as a felony and punishable as such. This is different from ethical hacking, which many organizations use to check their Internet security protection. In hacking, the criminal uses a variety of software to enter a person’s computer and the person may not be aware that his computer is being accessed from a remote location.Theft: This crime occurs when a person violates copyrights and downloads music, movies, games, and software. There are even peer sharing websites which encourage software piracy and many of these websites are now being targeted by the FBI. Today, the justice system is addressing this cybercrime and there are laws that prevent people from illegal downloading.Cyber Stalking: This is a kind of online harassment wherein the victim is subjected to a barrage of online messages and emails. Typically, these stalkers know their victims and instead of resorting to offline stalking, they use the Internet to stalk. However, if they notice that cyberstalking is not having the desired effect, they begin offline stalking along with cyberstalking to make the victims’ lives more miserable.Identity Theft: This has become a major problem with people using the Internet for cash transactions and banking services. In this cybercrime, a criminal accesses data about a person’s bank account, credit cards, Social Security, debit card and other sensitive information to siphon money or to buy things online in the victim’s name. It can result in major financial losses for the victim and even spoil the victim’s credit history.Malicious Software: These are Internet-based software or programs that are used to disrupt a network. The software is used to gain access to a system to steal sensitive information or data or causing damage to software present in the system.Computer Viruses: Computer viruses are computer programs that, when opened, put copies of themselves into other computers’ hard drives without the users’ consent. Creating a computer virus and disseminating it is a cybercrime. The virus may steal disk space, access personal information, ruin data on the computer or send information out to the other computer user’s personal contacts. The most common way for a virus to infect a computer is by way of an email attachment.   Effects of Cyber CrimeCriminals take advantage of technology in many different ways. The Internet, in particular, is a great tool for scammers and other miscreants, since it allows them to ply their trade while hiding behind a shield of digital anonymity. Cybercrime affects society in a number of different ways, both online and in the offline world.Identity TheftBecoming the victim of cybercrime can have long-lasting effects on your life. One common technique scammers employ is phishing, sending false emails purporting to come from a bank or other financial institution requesting personal information. If you hand over this information, it can allow the criminal to access your bank and credit accounts, as well as open new accounts and destroy your credit rating. This type of damage can take months or even years to fix, so protecting your personal information online is an important skill to learn.Security CostsCybercriminals also focus their attacks on businesses, both large and small. Hackers may attempt to take over company servers to steal information or use the machines for their own purposes, requiring companies to hire staff and update software to keep intruders out. According to EWeek, a survey of large companies found an average expenditure of $8.9 million per year on cybersecurity, with 100 percent of firms surveyed reporting at least one malware incident in the preceding 12 months and 71 percent reporting the hijacking of company computers by outsiders.Monetary LossesThe overall monetary losses from cybercrime can be immense. According to a 2012 report by Symantec, more than 1.5 million people fall victim to some sort of cybercrime every day, ranging from simple password theft to extensive monetary swindles. With an average loss of $197 per victim, this adds up to more than $110 billion dollars lost to cybercrime worldwide every year. As consumers get wise to traditional avenues of attack, cybercriminals have developed new techniques involving mobile devices and social networks to keep their illicit gains flowing.PiracyThe cybercrime of piracy has had major effects on the entertainment, music and software industries. Claims of damages are hard to estimate and even harder to verify, with estimates ranging widely from hundreds of millions to hundreds of billions of dollars per year. In response, copyright holders have lobbied for stricter laws against intellectual property theft, resulting in laws like the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. These laws allow copyright holders to target file sharers and sue them for large sums of money to counteract the financial damage of their activities online. What Should We Do?Training and awareness are important first steps in mitigating these attacks. All citizens, consumers, and employees should be aware of cyber threats and the actions they can take to protect their own information, as well as the information within their organization. So, what can you do to minimize the risk of becoming a cybercrime victim?1.      Use strong passwords: Use separate ID/password combinations for different accounts and avoid writing them down. Make the passwords more complicated by combining letters, numbers, special characters, and by changing passwords on a regular basis.2.      Enable your firewall: Firewalls are the first line of cyber defense; they block connections from suspicious traffic and will keep out some types of viruses and hackers.3.      Use anti-virus/malware software: Prevent viruses from infecting your computer by installing and regularly updating anti-virus software.4.      Block spyware attacks: Prevent spyware from infiltrating your computer by installing and updating anti-spyware software.5.      Secure your mobile devices: Be aware that your mobile device is vulnerable to viruses and hackers. Download applications from trusted sources. Do not store unnecessary or sensitive information on your mobile device. It is also important to keep the device physically secure; millions of mobile devices are lost each year. If you do lose your device, it should immediately be reported to your carrier and/or organization. There are some devices that allow remote erasing of data. Be sure to keep your mobile device password protected.6.      Install the latest operating system updates: Keep your applications and operating system (for example: Microsoft® Windows®, Apple® Mac, and Linux) current with the latest system updates. Turn on automatic updates to prevent potential attacks on older software.7.      Protect your data: Use encryption for your most sensitive files, such as health records, tax returns, and financial records. Make regular back-ups of all your important data.8.      Secure your wireless network: Wi-Fi (wireless) networks at home are vulnerable to intrusion if they are not properly secured. Review and modify default settings. Public Wi-Fi, also known as “hot spots,” may be vulnerable. Avoid conducting sensitive transactions on these networks.9.      Protect your e-identity: Be cautious when giving out personal information, such as your name, address, telephone number, or financial information on the Internet. Make sure that websites are secure, especially when making online purchases, or that you have enabled privacy settings (for example: when accessing/using social networking sites, such as Facebook, Twitter®, YouTube, etc.). Once something is posted on the Internet, it may be there forever.10.  Avoid being scammed: Never reply to emails that ask you to verify your information or confirm your user ID or password. Don’t click on a link or file of unknown origin. Check the source of the message; when in doubt, verify the source.  Conclusion:Though not all people are victims of cyber crimes, they are still at risk. Crimes by computer vary, and they don’t always occur behind the computer, but they executed by the computer. The hacker could live three continents away from its victim, and they wouldn’t even know they were being hacked. Crimes done behind the computer are the 21st century’s problem. With the technology increasing, criminals don’t have to rob banks, nor do they have to be outside in order to commit any crime. They have everything they need on their lap. Their weapons aren’t guns anymore; they attack with mouse cursors and passwords.

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