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Cloning began in the late 1800’s. Specifically in 1885 where Hans Dreisch cloned a sea urchin. After that, he then conducted the very first nuclear transfer in 1902 with a salamander embryo. He successfully split the embryo of a two-celled salamander into 2 separate cells, by using a single strand of hair. In 1952, two scientists by the name of Robert Briggs and Thomas King, conducted another nuclear transfer experiment, using adult donor cells to clone frogs. In the year of 1973, scientist Tong Dizhou created the very first clone of interspecies. This was done by inserting the DNA of Asian carp, into European carp. As research of cloning has dramatically increased, scientist Ian Wilmut cloned the very first animal from an adult cell in 1997. This mammal was famously known as, “Dolly the sheep.”Cloning is used to describe a variety of processes that can be used to produce identical copies of the same entity. Each copied entity is genetically the same and and is referred to as a clone. Over the years, researchers have cloned various biological materials, such as tissues, genes, cells and entire organisms. In animal cloning, researchers remove a mature somatic cell, such as a skin cell, from the animal. Researchers then take an egg cell, an oocyte, and remove its nucleus. They then use that specific somatic cell, to transfer DNA into an empty egg cell. This transfer is done one of two ways; either through electrical current, or using a needle to inject the DNA into the empty egg cell. In the option of electrical current, the current is used to fuse the somatic cell and the empty egg cell together. In the other option, a needle is used to remove the DNA nucleus from the somatic cell, and inject it into the empty egg cell. Within both methods of transferring the DNA into the egg cell, the egg is then left to develop in a test tube, in which after the early stages of embryo development have passed, is injected into the womb of a female animal. In the end, the female animal gives birth to a genetically identical animal, similar to the animal in which donated the somatic cell.Cloning can be important for many reasons. This can include the research and advances in medicine and the medical field, livestock, improving crops, and can even be used by police. Cloning can allow for scientists to reduce their need for the use of transgenic models. When scientists test medicines, they typically use animal models, such as mice. Most of the mice that are used for studies, have been genetically engineered to carry a mutation within their genes. The use of these models requires a lot of time and trial and error experiments, including the need to breed various generations, in order for the specific disease-causing mutation to become present within the model. The use of cloning would allow for genetically identical animals to be present and ready for the time of the experiment, when needed. Cloning is also important for the use in making stem cells. Cloning stem cells would allow scientists to make identical copies of individual cells,which would be beneficial for growing complete new organs, without the worry of the body rejecting foreign stem cells. Cloning can also be used in gene therapy. It can be used to determine many genes in which are disease causing. The use of cloning genes, allows for specific disease-causing genes and cures to be found.Cloning can also be beneficial towards producing livestock faster. Instead of cloning the livestock itself, the livestock could be used for making breeding stock. Only the cells from high-quality stock could be cloned and used to give to the animals in order for the animals to pass on the superior genes within generations. Cloning is also important for improving crops, specifically making crops herbicide-resistant.Finally, cloning can be used by police, in genetic fingerprinting. This is done by the extraction of DNA from bodily fluid and using restriction enzymes to cut the DNA.Overall, cloning is used to describe a variety of processes that can be used to produce identical copies of the same entity. Each copied entity is genetically the same and and is referred to as a clone. Cloning is becoming a very controversial, yet heavily researched topic. The use of cloning can be beneficial in many ways, such as in the research and advances in medicine and the medical field, livestock, improving crops, and can even be used by police.

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