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Corruption is common in almost every
country. Corruption is a problem that should be avoided and promptly cleared of
a country. Furthermore, according to Former Commissioners of the Indonesia
Anti-Corruption Commission, Chandra M. Hamzah, corruption is classified into
three types. First is multinational corruption. Multinational corruption by the corporation to manipulate the
money to the government, usually this corruption is in a third world state. The
Second is institutional corruption. This corruption did by the government
official and do institutionally so the corrupt ways well prepared and tightly
structured. And the last, is individual corruption. It refers to an individual
who does the corruption usually they press people’s money.1

If we see from the impact of it, we can
say that institutional corruption was given the massive impact. This is because
institutional corruption is engaged with International Relations actor, which
is stated. In the International world, is almost no country does not commit
corruption.2
Many countries in the world commit the corruption inside the government. World
Rank Corruption index reported from transparency.org mentioned that Malaysia is
the 55th rank of world corruption.3

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In 2015, Malaysia was surprised of
corruption case by the Malaysia Prime Minister, Dato’Sri Najib Razak. At the
time, Najib Razak is holding a position of Prime Minister 6 years. In his
second period as Prime Minister, he was reported on been doing corruption of
money $ 700 Million USD. This was reported by Wall Street Journal’s because of
the unclear transfer to the Najib Razak’s private account. The funds sent to the
personal account of Najib Razak was channelled from One Malaysia Development
Berhad (1MDB). 1MDB is a Malaysian government-owned company focusing on
strategic development projects of energy, real estate, tourism and agribusiness
for development of Malaysia. This case is known as 1Malaysia Development Berhad
Scandal. Knowing this scandal, Malaysian society, was motivated to hold some rallies
and demonstrations. The last rally was the biggest one, demanding Prime
Minister Najib Razak to step down.

The protest of Malaysian society to
overthrow of Prime Minister was never occured in Malaysia. During 22 years,
Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahatir Muhammad has never been demonstrated of negative
action such as corruption. In the other way, Mahathir has been contributed of
economic and development growth to Malaysia. During his period as Prime
Minister, Malaysian economic grows rapidly in the field of infrastructure that
has been the icon of Malaysia such as the national automotive brand of Proton,
Petronas Twin Towers, and the public transportation that facilitated well the
society. In the other hand, infrastructure grows by Najib not yet able to add
list of number of icons in Malaysia. Besides that compare the infrastructure
grows, Malaysia society also comparing the price of goods. They feel that the
price is increase including to the new policy to implement the Goods and
Service Tax (GST) 6% each goods and services by the Prime Minister Najib Razak.4

Besides the problem of increase of GST
as much as 6%, the general election systems felt not free and fair. The
irregularities and unfairness that happened in the electoral election in
Malaysia emerged several questions which make Malaysian citizen curious because
of his win and urge the transparency of general election in 2013.5
At that time Malaysian news mentioned there are several Pengundi Hantu (Phantom Voter). Phantom Voter is foreign voters who
work in Malaysia that given Malaysian Identity Card and have right as the voter
to join the general election. Besides the phantom voter, people also can vote
for more than one time in the general election. That is caused by the
incredible ink as the mark of people who already voted can remove easily and
then can vote again because no mark that they have already voted. In addition, during
the campaign period, the mainstream media is completely controlled by the
government and denied access to the opposition. There can be no real democracy
with such a lopsided and biased media environment.6

The differences had been felt by the
Malaysian society emerged the fluctuation to demand several things to the
government. In 2015, emerged the movement followed by 500.000 Malaysian societies
to do the act in public road to demand the step down of Prime Minister.7
This movement was called Bersih 4,
and continued by Bersih 5 in 2016. Before, there are Bersih 1, 2, 3 movements in 2007, 2011 and 2012, but then, the
first until third movements focus on the good governance and does not relate to
the case of Prime Minister.

Bersih
movement has the mission to speak out the right of society. This group namely Bersih 2.0. Bersih is a movement
initiated by Maria Chin Abdullah as a women’s rights activist and also the initiator
of the Bersih movement. Bersih is a movement that members
consisting of opposition political leaders, representatives from the civil
society,8
and several NGOs.

In the Bersih 1 action, they demanded four immediate reforms to the
electoral process: (i) a thorough cleanup of the electoral roll; (ii) the user
of indelible ink to prevent multiple voting; (iii) the abolition of postal
voting for military and police personnel; (iv) fair access to the mass media
for all parties.9
The first Bersih rally was held in
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In this rally was happening the chaotic that make
police should involve and be force to squirting gas shedding tears to the
demonstrators. As many as 40,000 people of Malaysia in the first rally.10
 

Secondly is Bersih 2 held in July 2011. Bersih
2 or usually called Walk for Democracy facilitated by the government to do a
rally in Merdeka Place, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This rally introduced by Bersih 2 demanded eight points for clean
and fair elections: (i) Clean the electoral roll; (ii) Reform postal ballot;
(iii) Use indelible ink; (iv) Minimum 21 days campaign period (v) Free and fair
access to media; (vi) Strengthen public institutions; (vii) Stop corruption;  (viii) Stop dirty politics.11
In the Bersih 2 followed by around 50.000 participants and almost paralyzing
the road and the public transportation in Kuala Lumpur so the police should
secure the rally was doing. For the first time rally was supported by 32 cities
around the world organized by Global Bersih. And finally, after several months,
the parliamentary select Committee of General Election for granting the
electoral form was announced and established.

Third, Bersih 3 was marred by violence, which the opposition claimed was
instigated by the police or by hooligans hired by those in power.12
Bersih 3 also called Duduk 
Bantah (Sit in), is a protest to the government, according to the
follow up of the rally in 2007 and 2011. This movement happened because there
is no realization of previous rally and demand for observation of 13th
general election by international observers. Whereas, the participants already
delivered that they will stop the demonstration after the electoral reform in
the general election grant.13

Furthermore, Bersih 4 movement is a rally happened in 2015. This movement based on
Wall Street Journal’s reported; the funds were transferred to the personal
account of Najib Razak and suspected as the corruption. Malaysian societies
with Bersih 4 demand Najib Razak to step
down from his position as Prime Minister. This rally was happening two days and
followed by more than 200.000 participants inside and outside Malaysia.14

And finally the last rally was Bersih 5. Bersih 2.0 has announced that it will hold the Bersih 5 rally on the 19th of November 2016 at Dataran Merdeka from
10am to 6pm. The meeting points are Dataran Maybank (Bangsar LRT) and Masjid
Negara. Participants will walk from these two meeting points to Dataran
Merdeka. Bersih 2.0 is currently
running a convoy to raise awareness about Bersih
5’s demands for institutional reforms and the severity of the 1MDB crisis.
The Bersih 5 Convoy starts on the 1st
of October 2016 and will run every weekend until the Bersih 5 rally on the 19th of November 2016. There will
be seven convoys nationwide, starting from the North, South, East and West of
Peninsula Malaysia and Sabah and Sarawak. The convoy will head towards Kuala
Lumpur, Kota Kinabalu and Kuching.15

However, after the Bersih 5 movement until now, PM Najib Razak along with the Government
of Malaysia successfully cover up the corruption case. Prime Minister Najib Razak
managed to take various ways to secure his position. He kicked his rival
Muhyiddin Yassin, who was a Vice Prime Minister of Najib’s government. Muhyiddin
Yassin had criticized Najib for the 1MDB scandal, and was replaced by the
Minister of Home Affair’s Zahid Hamidi. Not only did he kick Muhyiddin, he also
replaced Attorney General Abdul Gani Patail (due to a health reason, according
to him) to Mohamed Apandi Ali, who was able to clean up the corruption case
that happened to Najib and declared Najib not a suspect of corrupt.16

We can say that from 2015 until 2017,
Najib was safe from several suspects because of his track record in the
political fields especially in the Malaysian government. But then, Bersih 2.0 was still shouting of Good
Governance in order to demand the prosperity of Malaysian society. Bersih 2.0 is a movement came from the
civil society that has no relation with the Malaysian Anti-Corruption
Commission or in Bahasa Melayu called
Suruhanjaya Pencegah Rasuah Malaysia
(SPRM),17
Bersih 2.0 is still convoy and
fighting of Good Governance.

In this research, researcher is
interested to research and analyze the effort of Bersih 2.0 to impose the Good Governance.

1
Irawan, Dika (2017). Korupsi Korporasi
Marak di Negara Dunia Ketiga, Retrieved on October 26, 2017  from http://kabar24.bisnis.com/read/20170415/19/645314/korupsi-korporasi-marak-di-negara-dunia-ketiga

2
Transparency International (2016), Corruption
Perception Index 2016, Retrieved on October 27, 2017 from https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2016

3
Transparency International (2016), Corruption
Rank, Retrieved on October 27, 2017 from https://tradingeconomics.com/country-list/corruption-rank

4 New Mandala, 2015, Najib’s taxing problem: The politics of
Malaysia’s GST, Retrieved October 23, 2017 from http://www.newmandala.org/najibs-taxing-problem-the-politics-of-malaysias-gst/

5 Ambiga Sreenevasan, 2013, Will elections in Malaysia be free or fair?,
Retrieved on November 27, 2017 from http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/04/201342982454925143.html

6 Azeem Ibrahim, Election Fraud in Malaysia, Retrieved on
November 27, 2017 from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/azeem-ibrahim/malaysia-election-fraud_b_3211954.html

7 Shakira Buang, 2015, 500,000 were at Bersih 4, says organiser,
Retrieved on October 2017 from https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/310565

8 The Strait Times, 2015, What you need to know about Malaysia’s
Bersih movement, Retrieved October 25, 2017, from http://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/what-you-need-to-know-about-malaysias-bersih-movement

9
Bersih 2.0, Bersih 1 (10 November 2007),
Retrieved on October 26, 2017 from http://www.bersih.org/rallies/bersih1/

10 Ibid

11
Bersih 2.0, Bersih 2: Walk For Democracy
(9 July 2011), Retrieved on October 26, 2017 from  https://www.bersih.org/rallies/bersih2/

12 Barbara Watson Andaya and Leonard
Y Andaya, (2017), History of Malaysia,
New York:Palgrave p.362

13 Bersih 2.0, Bersih 3: Duduk Bantah (28 April 2012), Retrieved on November 3,
2017 from http://www.bersih.org/rallies/bersih3/

14 Bersih 2.0, Bersih 4 (29-30 August 2015), Retrieved on November 6, 2017 from http://www.bersih.org/rallies/bersih4/

15
Global Bersih, Bersih 5, Retrieved on
November 9, 2017 from https://www.globalbersih.org/bersih5/

16 BBC Indonesia, Skandal 1MDB soroti pendanaan politik di
Malaysia retrieved on November 9, 2017 from http://www.bbc.com/indonesia/dunia/2016/03/160329_dunia_malaysia_dana_politik

17 Bersih 2.0, KENYATAAN MEDIA PENGERUSI BERSIH 2.0 , Kami bersama SPRM, dedahkanlah
kebenaran!, Retrieved on November 9, 2017 from https://www.bersih.org/kenyataan-media-pengerusi-bersih-2-0-kami-bersama-sprm-dedahkanlah-kebenaran/

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