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Executive
Summary

1.1 Introduction

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Racial discrimination has been
highlighted as one of the most problematic issues regarding racism in Malaysia,
among the problems that occurs are people who practices racism have the
tendency to judge and cast aside other race that is not the same as theirs in
terms of helping others and tend to look after their own people of the same
race more than other races especially when it comes to business matters, they
are also incline to buy needed stuffs such as groceries from their own race’s
shops, market etc.

The purpose of this research is to
investigate of what and how racism effects the perspective of college students
and how this then would shape them in the future in the process of becoming the
future leaders of Malaysia.

            Having
been living together for more than 50 years would technically could have united
the entire nation into one understanding community which gives and take equally
and respect each other well. However even up to this date, there are still many
racial issues that occurs between races mainly between the major races of the
country. The topic chosen mainly was due to the fact that racism is a habit of
hate and prejudice which also synonymised as racial discrimination or
intolerance where due to certain conditions, a person avoids to interact with
other race due to bad experience of past events or mainly hatred itself.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2  Background
of study

 

            Race is
well known by most Malaysian as a term which means a class of different people
with different skin colours and practises different cultural values. Back in
early history of Malaysia, the practises which differentiates people thru
colours were not typical or a usual thing to do.  “in the Malay sultanates’ historical
accounts, Sejarah Melayu or
Malay Annals, the word bangsa was
only used once (Milner 2007, p.85). In the English translation of Sejarah Melayu by Leyden, the word
race is used more than once, however there is no physical description of people
as we see in the colonial writings. When it talked about beautiful princess, it
did not mention about her skin color, shape of her eyes, or nose. (Rie
Nakamura, Malaysia, School of International Studies Universiti Utara, Malaysia
a Racialized Nation: Study of Race in Malaysia.)

 

 From here we can see that racial differences
were not a problem in Malaysia in the early stages of the Malay Sultanate era.
Skin colours never gives any specific caste or the importance of a certain race
than the other. Soon after, British came and invaded, this is when the idea to
differentiate race into specifics grouping begin to take place. “Milner argues
that “bangsa Melayu”  is a concept that was invented during the
19th century. He examined the etymology of the term and demonstrated how the
word originally meant genealogy, lineage and family, and then developed into
something equivalent to the ethnic group which was used to group people based
on their origin, customs and religion (Milner 1998, 2002, 2004).” – (Rie
Nakamura, Malaysia, School of International Studies Universiti Utara, Malaysia
a Racialized Nation: Study of Race in Malaysia.)

 

            At this
point, we can see that racism was not originally taught in the early ages of Malay
Sultanate era but came later on after we were invaded by the outside force
during the 19’s, we have long came into terms with every other races way before
Malaysia was born, yet after the invasion from the British, we learnt to
differentiate every race and believed that every race are different and some
might be better than the others, and this is where racial discrimination comes
in especially among the two major race that exists in Malaysia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.3 Problem Statement

 

 

            The
problem in this study that the researcher wanted to discuss in this research
is, if the Malay Sultanate era were once a peaceful and none racist nation who
welcomed every ethnic with different skin colours to enter and socialize with
harmony among other citizens, then when did racism begins that it has reached a
point where racial discrimination is being practised in Malaysia nowadays
especially between the two major race which is the Malays and Chinese. Racial
discrimination then has caused several other problems towards the people who
lives in the country, up till now there were a number of serious issues that
involved between Malays and Chinese which started from a few word arguments and
later turn into bloodshed, for example the incidence of 13th May.

 

Racial conflicts has reduced a lot
over the past years after the incident of 13th May as politicians
fears of how it could endanger every other citizen and reached an agreement
shortly after the incident of 13th May. This however does not mean
that racial conflicts cease to exist immediately afterwards. We have come into
an era where we believe we are better than the others, as an example the Malays
thinks that they are the ruler of this country thus they are better than other
races, while Chinese, having the second most populated citizenships in Malaysia
feels that they too are supposed to be treated as equals and feels like they
too are better at being in charge than Malays do.

           

            What the
researcher is trying to stress out in here is that, we Malaysian are going thru
some minor-major racial issues such as racial discrimination due to the
believes of “ours are better than the others”. This then leads to a few other
problems. Racial arguments can sometimes be found randomly in social media,
where hate and foul comments are uttered to the other race. The real problem of
racial discrimination is that it teaches us to hate other race with the belief
of we are better than another and this can cause major problems in the future
if we do not take the initiative to unite as a nation that we are, and if we do
not, we might affect our future generations to pay for the actions that we take
and did not.

 

 

 

 

 

1.4 Research Question

 

1.   
What
does college students understand regarding racism and what is their opinion
towards racial discrimination?

2.   
Will
racial discrimination affect the interpersonal relationships among the Malays
and Chinese?

3.   
Will
the practise of racial discrimination affect our future generations?

 

 

 

 

1.5 Research Objective

 

 

1.   
To
study the effects of racial discrimination towards future generations in terms
of interpersonal relationships between the Malay and Chinese.

2.   
To
find out the perspective of college students regarding racial discrimination
and the effects it could bring to our future generations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.6  Significance
of the study

 

            Every research and study that is
being conducted must have a purpose to make it accountable information.  The rationale of this research is to
understand what is the concept that lies behind the practise of racial discrimination
between races in Malaysia, and in this case study, it involves the two major
race population that cohabits in Malaysia, that is the Malay ad Chinese. It is
to better understand on why do these two race always bicker with one another
despite having been living in harmony once, before Malaysia managed to claim
independence that is somewhere in the victorious Melaka era.

 

            This study is also significant as it will provide
information regarding how actually racial discrimination first came into Malaysia
and how it develops into hatred and being practise by many Malaysians. By
knowing this fact and information, future generation could take precautions and
avoid any unnecessary racial conflicts that could get worse from just mouth to
mouth arguments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.7
Research Scope

                       

                        As
this research is a form of a review study, the sources of the data being
depended on will be from secondary data which is from books, journals,
technical reports and some reputable search engines. This is to strengthen the
points of this research being conducted.

Based
on the research questions of this study, the research will be explored using
qualitative enquiry, which is to interview a few numbers of legitimate
knowledgeable college students.

 

A review study is chosen to be most
appropriate way to address the study research questions because it is a way to
pull many pieces of information together and make it into a simple
comprehensible format. Review study is supportive in presenting a broad
perspective on a topic and it is useful for the general understanding on some
research are especially for the concepts and technologies like mobile
game-based learning and mobile game applications that are changing rapidly in
the world that usually it is used to get comprehensive and historical
information (Huizenga, Admiraal, Akkerman, & Ten Dam, 2009).

 

The researcher have decided to
Interview College students from UiTM Shah Alam as it is known that most of UiTM
students are very opinionated and are very well informed of various current
issues that spreads throughout Malaysia. Even though UiTM is known to only
accepts Bumiputera students, UiTM
students however interacts with many other different races that comes from
other countries during student exchange programme and thus making UiTM Shah
Alam one of the University which actually have multiple race in the academy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.0
Related Literature Review

2.1
Introduction

Malays and
Chinese are the 2 top major populations in Malaysia making them in the two most
dominant races in Malaysian. However, the occurrence of racial discrimination
between these two races can sometimes be worrisome. Racial discrimination in
between Chinese and Malay not only occurs verbally, it also takes in work
place, education institution and more. In the latest Malaysia Report of Racial
Discrimination 2016 compiled by Pusat Komas, racial discrimination in Malaysia
can be categorized in 10 categories. 

 

There 10 trends of racial
discrimination as were reported in The Malaysia Racial Discrimination Report
2016 which is as follows;

 

1. Racial Discrimination in the
Education Sector

2. Racializing Criminality

3. Racism in the Business Environment

4. Discrimination based on Dress Code
and Service Delivery

5. Groups, Agencies and Individuals
that use provocative racial sentiments

6. Political Groups, Hate Speech and
Racial Statements

7. Entrenched Racial Discrimination
among Malaysians

8. Racial Discrimination in the name
of Religion

9. Racial Discrimination in other
Industries

10. Xenophobic Behavior”- (MALAYSIA RACIAL DISCRIMINATION REPORT 2016

Launched on March 21, 2017 in conjunction with the International Day
for the Elimination

of Racial Discrimination)

The various type of racial discrimination that we
have in Malaysia proves that the racial discrimination we have in Malaysia is
not as simple as we thought it was. This review is intended to open up and make
people think about the concept of racial discrimination and how it could affect
the interpersonal relationships of future generations in Malaysia.

Malaysia as a multiracial and multiethnic country
will involve many of its citizens from various ages to interact with one
another, from here the question is, if racial discrimination is practise freely
among Malaysian, wouldn’t the youngsters who sees this matter be affected as
well? Youngsters tend to follow the footprints of the adult they are closest to
as their role model and one day they will be the one to lead and rule over
Malaysia and if they are exposed towards these negative manners, this then
could bring further effect towards the country.

2.2
Racism

Hearing
racism most people would only think of how one race looks down towards another
race for thinking that the other race aren’t in par with their own race thus
making them show prejudice towards the other race. Racism however is managed
into 3 groups, which are the structural, institutional and individual level
racism.

In
the first categorized group of racism is structural racism. As stated by Keith
Lawrence, Terry Keleher in their journal of structural racism, race and public
policy conference, structural racism is technically the normalization of a
group of dynamics. It can be categorizes through historical, cultural,
institutional and interpersonal. Structural racism is a system which practises
inequity and the system is constructed hierarchically and primarily
characterized by white supremacy.

 

Institutional racism as described by English
Oxford Living Dictionary is  a
discrimination that is being seen and practise as norms within a society or
culture. In a quoted news by Malaysia
Today, it has been stated that, the process of where people from ethnic
minorities are systematically discriminated against by the majority or public
and private constitution is called institutional racism. . In another journal
written by Dr. Benjamin Bowling he stated that if in a nation’s law can be seen
as bias or there are customs practices is racially discriminatory then it can
be said that, racial discrimination has occurred. Donna K Bivens in her article
What is internalized racism? stated
that an individual or internalized racism exist within individuals, there are
personal materialization of racism that present inside an individual. She also
stated that internalized racism is the affect of the system of structural
disadvantage called internalized racism for people and communities of colour on
inter- and intra- group levels.

Racism at first was viewed as a racial-cultural
thing, however in Structural racism, race and public policy conference 2004,
Keith Lawrence said that, racism also can occurs between individuals and that
now even if racism, it is now an interpersonal realm.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.3
Discrimination

In literal, discrimination
means to serve unjust towards other people by thinking that one is better than
the other. It can also be viewed as an act of prejudicial treatment towards
certain group of people. Discrimination often occurs in a few context such as,
gender, age and race. Other than that, it could also be put as being bias. For
only accepting the ones with the same group as the particular faction and avoid
or neglect others who is deem not fit to be as equals. In the journal Social
Bias: Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination by Sabrina Keene, she
quoted  “Bias comes in many forms,
including race, age, gender, and ethnicity and can be universal or location
specific (Fiske, 2010). Biased individuals believe the biases they are applying
to others are right without regard for the truth (Fiske).”

Sabrina also added in her
journal which she quoted by Fiske (2010), stereotyping an application of an
individual’s thoughts, beliefs, and expectations onto other individuals without
first obtaining factual information about the individual.

Discrimination is related
with social biases.  People tend to stigmatize
a certain concept or traits of a person by what they believe, this sometimes
can be true yet could also most of the time be proved wrong as it is an
assumptions towards the other party. Most often than not, these assumptions
towards another party will be negative which then will lead towards social
biases and later being judged and discriminated. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.4
Racial discrimination and interpersonal relationship.

            Human
beings are not made to live alone in the world, thus everyone born human will
later seek for partners, friends, and later on make a group to live as a
community. Living in a community requires efforts in tolerating with one
another and understanding to keep the community living in a peaceful state.
When one group meets another group of people and live together, they will then
whether tries to live in harmony or will have several inner conflicts within
the community. Every person in the community plays a role in developing and
maintaining the harmony between one group with another, which is in this
context we refer it to the two major races in Malaysia. Racial discrimination
may look as if it could attack people when they are in each others’ group or
race, this however at times may even effect people individually. To build a
strong community it must be strengthen from the roots, and the roots here
refers to every individual which lives together and form a community.

 

 

 

In a
journal written by John F. Dividio, Samuel L. Gaertner, Kerry Kawakami, and
Gordon Hodson, they have conducted a research on how intercultural biases
between American and African American can contribute to interracial distrust
that can also undermine race relations. They have lined up four ways an
aversive racism can adversely influence intercultural relations to undermine
race relations more generally. 

The third way of an aversive racism
relates the most with the conditions we have here in Malaysia that is stated by
John F. Dividio, Samuel L. Gaertner, Kerry Kawakami and Gordon Hodson in Why Can’t We Just
Get Along? Interpersonal Biases and Interracial Distrust,

stated that, because people and their
interaction partners have different perspectives and different access to
thoughts and observable behaviours, there is significant potential for
miscommunication to occur in interactions.

 

2.5
Summary

In short, racism, cultural
bias and discrimination are all interrelated with one another, and all of these
manners have the tendency to affect the future generation negatively. Whilst
racial discrimination occurs between two major race which is in two large
grouping of people, we can’t deny that human relations basics starts from an
individual. To nurture a tree is to start by watering its roots and this is
what exactly is trying to be conveyed.

 

3.0  Methods

3.1  Introduction

 

This study review the racial
discrimination between the two major races in Malaysia and what is the
perspective it brings towards college students in terms of intercultural
relationship and how this will effects the future generations of the country.
The method that will be used to questions the applicants is thru interview
making this as a qualitative research. It is to understand the perspective of
the UiTM college students towards racial discrimination towards the effects it
could bring towards the future generations. Other than that, review materials
that is being used in this research is through reading multiple journals and
reports based on research that has been conducted previously by a number of
researcher.

 

3.2  Selection
of the Review Materials

 

The task to select the materials to be
reviewed is one of the most important task in a research study. The criteria of
the review materials will need to include both the exterior and interior
condition that could have causes racial discrimination to get a valid and
reliable data source. This study will concentrate on academic journals and
reports and these reading materials will be the ones with pack information that
could be extracted into research so that it could have a proper reasoning
towards why and what has been happening regarding racial discrimination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.2.1      Database
Search

The
research materials such as the academic journals and report that has been
published and reviewed and used in this research are reliable for data review.
From the journals that was chosen, all of it have some relations towards racial
discrimination, interpersonal communication, racial bias, racism, prejudice and
many more of which are all interrelated with one another and can give a lot of
insights for research purposed. The searched journals varies from years, there
are some which dated back during 1980’s however is being quoted in a new
journal and the result and also perspective is in the latest form. All of the
information gained in the journals and reports will help in producing interview
questions for research purpose and some can help in explaining and answer
research questions.

1.    The
search for relevant articles is conducted in the following academic databases
which are ResearchGate, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia data bases and Google
scholars.

2.    The
journals were read a couple of times to ensure the legitimacy and the content’s
quality. The term used to search for the journals that has been used in this
research was, racial discrimination, racism, discrimination, interpersonal
communication and so forth. Technically the title search in the search engine
is basically taken from the title of this research in order to find journals
which have almost the same research or result to help the research. There were
a hundred journals that was found under the title discrimination alone, the
screening thru these journals to properly pick one that is appropriate to be
used is by having to look at the keyword of every site weather it aligns with
the current research the researcher is conducting.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.3  Method
of Review

Author
(s)
 

Publication
Year

Title

Jolanda Jetten
Russell Spears
Antony S.R. Manstead
 

1997

Distinctiveness threat and prototypicality:
combined effects on intergroup
discrimination
and collective self-esteem

PUSAT KOMAS
Non-Discrimination Programme
Malaysia

2017

MALAYSIA RACIAL DISCRIMINATION REPORT 2016

John
F. Dividio
Samuel
L. Gaertner
Kerry
Kawakami
Gordon Hodson

n.d.

Why Can’t We Just
Get Along?
Interpersonal
Biases and
Interracial Distrust

Keith Lawrence,
Terry Keleher,

2004

Structural Racism

Edited by
Laurence Bond,
Frances McGinnity
and
Helen Russell

2010

Making equality count

Alastair
Bonnet

2000

ANTI-RACISM

Jessica Ong Hai Liaw
Ahmad Azan Ridzuan

2015

Malaysia: Ethnic Issues and National Security

Laura Smart Richman, Mark R. Leary
 

2009

Reactions to Discrimination,
Stigmatization, Ostracism, and Other Forms of Interpersonal Rejection
 

 

 

 

 

 

3.3.1      Review
of Articles

 

For
research questions the pertinent and correlated articles was reviewed and was
rephrase, paraphrase summarized and quoted. The journals were all very helpful
as it gave a lot of reliable data that can be used for interview which is
closely related towards the research.

 

 

3.4  Summary

The methodology section represents the
method used to study the behaviours or what affect the occurrence of the behaviours
which is discrimination to happen, the method used is to ensure the
understanding of this topic and to identify in depth regarding racial
discrimination before the researcher could interview other candidates to know
what is their understanding and perspective regarding this matter.

In order to do so,
the researcher carefully selects the journals that have connections with the
research objectives and research questions. Basically, the review was conducted
based on the research questions provided

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