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Heat exchanger have been employed in heat  transfer related applications for many years
like power plant solar energy, heat recovery systems, light water nuclear
reactors, air craft cooling, electronics cooling, spacecraft thermal control,
transportation systems, automotive industry, permafrost stabilization, and bio-related
applications1. In recent years, the idea of utilizing nanoparticles within the
working fluid of a heat exchanger has become a subject of significant 2–4.
There are a number of studies on thermal performance of the nanofluids  4–6. The nanoparticles within the fluid change
its thermal performance. It has been investigated that the thermal conductivity
of the nanofluids increases with a decrease in particle  diameter with given concentration level, 7–11.
However, there are some experimentations which 
do not confirm this improveement in the thermal conductivity 12.  The ability of heat transfer of  heat exchanger is regulated by moving
properties of the working fluid for heat transfer applications. The rate of
heat transfer had been  enhanced by incorporting
the nano filler or additives to their working fluids to alternate the fluid
thermal properties and flow patterns13. Choi 14 was the first who called
the nanoparticles incorporated to fluid “nanofluid” in 1995 and  then the research of this field of novel research
working fluid had been investigated. Nanofluids are novel kind of fluids
consisting of diffuse and suspended nanometre sized particles or fibres in
fluids. They have concluded that thermal performance such as the anomalously
high thermal conductivity at very low volume fraction and the significant
improvement of forced convective and boiling heat transfer rate15. To attain
the enhancement of the thermal charateristic, the selection of nano fluids
plays a vital role in heat transfer devices.A broad range of nanoparticles such
as titanium, gold, CuO, diamond, silver, copper and nickel oxide have been used
to  enhance the thermal characteristic of
heat exchanger. Oztop and Abu-Nada 16 used 
TiO2, Al2O3, CuO as a nano fluids and  water as base fluid, Yang et al. 17 investigated
that thermal charateristic of a horizontal micro-grooved heat pipe using CuO as
nano particle and water as nano fluid and Kole and Dey 18 studied Cu
distilledwater nanofluids as working fluid. Many researches have been  dedicated to the heat transfer enhancement
appications by using nanofluids with advancement of nanotechnology and thermal
engineering. In heat conduction and heat convection, nanofluid has extremely
good performance in heat transfer appications such as heat pipes, heat
exchanger, poweplant  to enhance their
heat transfer performance.Recently most of the investigations on the effect of
using nanofluids with electronic devices have been carried out  experimentally 19.

Numbers of experimental investigations
have established on thermal performance using the nano-fluid with higher
effective thermal conductivity and critical heat flux 20-26.

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However, the magnesium and aluminium  nano-fluid filled on shell and tube heat
exchanger thermal performance not has been investigated. Therefore, the purpose
of present study is to investigate the effect of nanofluid on shell and tube
heat exchanger thermal performance

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