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Learn
everything you can, anytime you can, from anyone you can; there will always
come a time when you will be grateful you did.”    ?Sarah Caldwell 

A good student is the one who can read, write, study well,
and wants to have an adequate vocabulary. Vocabulary is not heritable, it must
be produced, with this regard, we are all born equally ignorant in this respect
(Van Herk, 2012). Vocabulary instruction and learning is a continual experiment
for educators as well as students possibly for the reason that generally, there
has been minimal focus on vocabulary instruction in the ESL classroom. This is
possibly due to a supported importance on vocabulary development and it is
vital for the English language learner in the development of language learning
(Peregoy, S., Boyle, O., 201; Sedita, 2005). Vocabulary instruction directly
improves comprehension and academic vocabulary enables one to communicate our
needs which increases one’s chances that those needs are fulfilled and also
enables one to understand the needs of others.

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English speaking skills cannot be gained in a single day.
For countless students, vocabulary instruction comprises of looking up words in
the glossary or dictionary, copying the definitions (a lot of time the
shortest), and writing sentences using the word. Usually this task amounts to
not much more than handwriting exercise for most students, since they are most
likely only memorizing a meaning and not acquiring word meaning knowledge. Word
knowledge develops over time during numerous exposures to words and terms or
phrases in different contexts. All the elements of effective vocabulary
instruction work in concert, and no factor is satisfactory of itself to warrant
sufficient success.

Knowledge of vocabulary adapts the comprehension of a
reading text. Literacy is basically vocabulary knowledge and the ability to
comprehend it. The extent and complexity of a student’s vocabulary is a key predictor
of his or her ability to understand a wide range of texts. A variety of methods
may be used to support learners from guessing the meaning from context or using
a dictionary. To help learners integrate and recall the new words, terms, or
phrases proficiently, learners need more tasks in which educators will allow to
spend more time with learners and this is where direct teaching of vocabulary
comes in.   Computer Assisted Language
Learning (CALL) has been a remarkable development in the educational technology
(Chen, n.d.). Computers can provide rich, contextual environment for vocabulary
learning and consequently allows learners to become active in one-to-one
learning environment. Practice with high frequency vocabulary (Peregoy, S.,
Boyle, O., 2017) through CALL benefits reading with computers as a tool and
offers great potential to enhance vocabulary instruction; external stimulation,
rich graphic, and online rewards (Chen, n.d.; Tonekabonit, A. M., Latifi, M.
& Abedini, F., 2015). These tools, in turn provide abundant opportunities
for learners to contend with new words in various context by allowing learners
almost instant access to text, graphic, and speedy access to considerable
information (Tonekabonit, A. M., Latifi, M. & Abedini, F., 2015; Clark,
2013). Instantaneous response and feedback learners acquire while completing
the reading activities online proved to be a significant aid in learning
vocabulary. For ESL learners, this may encourage or foster participation with a
general enjoyment of classes, but also contributes to learning, nurtures
interactions, and permits learners to self-assess and compare one’s performance
with that of one’s contemporaries (Clark, 2013)

Graphic organizers and visual displays emphasize
relationships between words. One technology induced word mapping tool that
support visual representation is “word clouds.” Word clouds (a visual
representation of text data, used to depict keyword metadata or tags on
websites. Tags are usually single words, and the prominence of each tag is
shown with font size or color) are based on the frequency of words in a
particular text. “Word Clouds” can be used to stimulate students’ thinking
about the meaning, importance, and relationship of words as learners analyze,
create, and publish (Chen, n.d.; What Is Disciplinary Literacy?, 2017). It is
demanding to find the resources and time required to provide the latest and
current materials, to be receptive to learners’ interests, and to assist
readers at various reading levels. Educators may dramatically develop text
options for learners by including reading on the Internet and other digital
texts (Clark, 2013). A large percentage of learners at present use the Internet
for homework. One may extend learners learning and exploration of words in context
as one reads and views varied text genres on the Internet, or reads texts
downloaded onto a class computer, an e-book reading device, or even a
smartphone.

 Since vocabulary
development is a long process, drawing on a variety of methodologies helps to
prevent boredom. Some words or terms demand more specified instruction than
others, certain activities as semantic maps and a few other graphic organizers
work better with words that are related in meaning. Using technology fosters
more independence and aids in development of critical thinking skills for
learning. Technology does have a place in ESL and should be utilized much more
than it has been.  As one experiments
with the strategies and techniques described one will be able to determine
which ones aid the learners.                                                                                                             

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