Review of The Related Literature
In this chapter, a
detailed review of accessible literature on the barriers to female
participation in higher education has been presented. This helped researcher to
draw theoretical basis for the present study.
meaning of Education is “to know”. Human beings have been awarded knowledge to
live in the world. Firstly, knowledge enables man to achieve his or her goals
of life e.g. beliefs, ethics and right and duties. This is known as religious
knowledge and Allah Almighty arranged it through prophets to convey this knowledge
to human beings. Besides, there are some other kinds of worldly knowledge e.g.
mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Philosophy and Economic (Anderson, B,
is a social process by which balanced development of an individual can take
place. Education grooms the personality as a carpenter mold a piece of wood
into beautiful shape. The process of education is not limited to man or woman
but the education of both has its own significance. Many aspects about the
education of women are arguable (Laurence, C, J, 2010). Education is the
backbone of the infrastructure of any country. It is the most powerful
instrument of change (Khan, 2007).
remains one of the essential elements for the maintainable socioeconomic
development of a society and a basic instrument for human resources development
as it enables economic through the broader application of skills, Knowledge and
creative power of a society, decrease of poverty or difference, and also try to
overcome gender differences between male and female (Sharma, S & Kanta, S.
was an important problem of our national life. Islam is the only religion,
which in Islamic history whose courtesy, God fairness, and sacrifice was an
example for us. In the sub-continent people had awareness about female
education because they know that an educated woman was a good protector of the
culture of a nation ensures the security for the development of a new generation
(Yaqoob, T, 2010 Female).
education is recognized as a capital investment and important for social and
economic development. Higher education means all courses, curricula, texts
institutes and faculty involved in teaching students beyond the intermediate
level. Investment on higher education can be justified on grounds of social and
economic impact. The existing system of higher education comprises of number of
interlocking institutions. These include the federal and provincial ministries
of education and their attached departments, offices of the chancellor of
public universities, HEC and various universities and colleges. University
management board comprises of number of vc, the registrar and deans as
executive body. President hold powerful position, he appoints vice-chancellor,
member of syndicate and deans. Syndicate is the supreme governing and
legislative body of the university. The chancellor is the chairman of
syndicate. VC is the chief academic and administrative officer of the
university. Registrar enforce academic and administrative policies as well as
prepare institutional reports. (www.hec.gov.pk).
believes that major cause of the lagging behind in general in economic and social
progress in most of the developing country including Pakistan is absence of a
higher percentage of educated and technically qualified women”. Population of
female is a huge part of the country. We cannot develop our country if we
cannot educate this large part of our population. The educational backwardness
of Pakistani people is most noticeable in respect of women education. In Pakistan
people did not give importance about female education. In fact, female consider
as a burden on their father and brothers that’s why they did not educate their
daughters or sisters (Chaudhry, S, I, 2007).
females are more aware of their rights. If a greatest participation of educated
female’s in the economy and political process would lead to a better world
today as well as future generations (Afzal & Roshi, S, 2013).
Women education in
Pakistanis status and standard particularly is at the lowest level. Females are
deprived because of multifarious socio-cultural and economic reasons and gender
prejudices unable to play active role in the development of society (Faridi, Z,
M & Malik, S, 2009)