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Schiff bases and their metal
complexes have remarkable structural features and physio-chemical properties.
Schiff bases have great importance in the biological world and constitute a
vast area of research in the modern coordination chemistry. A Schiff base is a nitrogen
analog of an aldehyde or ketone in which C=N-R group replaces the C=O group.
Condensation of an aldehyde or ketone with a primary amine is usually the
method followed for the formation of a Schiff base. A pivotal role has been
played by Schiff bases in the development of co-ordination chemistry. Some
Schiff base ligands have been synthesized to mimic the function of natural
carriers responsible for recognition and transportation of specific metal ions,
anions or neutral molecules. These also help in understanding and reproducing
the catalytic activity of metallo-enzymes and proteins Mohamed G, Omar MM and
Ibrahim, 2009. Most of the transition metal complexes of Schiff bases show
useful biological properties of being good antibacterial, antiviral, anti
malarial and anti tubercular compounds. For the past few decades, Schiff base
metal complexes have been studied largely because of their interesting chemical
and physical properties which make the Schiff bases work on a wide range of applications
such as antimicrobials, corrosion inhibitors, catalysts etc. Schiff
bases are made more chemically and biologically significant by the presence of
the imino nitrogen atom of the azomethine group. Schiff base can be an
intermediate in a series of enzymatic reactions constituting the interaction of
an enzyme with a carbonyl or an amino group of the substrate. The biochemical
process involving the condensation of a primary amine of an lysine residue
enzyme with carbonyl group of the substrate to form an imine or Schiff base is
one of the most significant types of catalytic mechanism. Like the carbon-oxygen
double bond, Schiff bases contain carbon-nitrogen double bond which is readily
reduced by complex metal hydrides. This type of reduction constitutes the most
yielding and convenient method for the conversion of C=N into amino compounds. Schiff bases are immensely
used in organic chemistry such as in acylation by acid anhydrides and acyl
cyanides being initiated by an attack at the nitrogen atom leading to net
addition of the acylating agent to the carbon-nitrogen double bond. These types
of reactions are highly useful for natural product synthesis. The addition of
hydrogen cyanide to Schiff bases (Layer and Carman 1968, Smith, 1965) provides a feasible route to a-amino nitriles, which can
further be used as the precursor for synthesizing amino acids (Ogata and
Kawasaki, 1971). Apart from all this Schiff bases are also used as pigments and
dyes, catalysts, intermediate in organic synthesis and as polymer stabilizers
(Mobinikhaledi et al, 2011).

 

Cuminaldehdye
is an organic compound basically a benzaldehyde with molecular formula C10H12O.
This colorless compound has molecular weight of 148.2g/mol and due to its pleasant
odor it is commercially used in the cosmetics and perfume industries. It is the
main constituent essential oil of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) commonly used as
jeera and is grown from India to East Mediterranean. Seeds of cumin are used as
spice seasoning and as astringent and carminative they are used as traditional
medicines in Ayurveda. Chinese traditional medicine studies also suggest cumin
seeds play the role of a spleen warmer and a remedy of indigestion and cold. Cuminaldehyde
that is 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde is an oxidized aldehyde monoterpene that shows
properties of being an antibacterial Mighri, Noumi, Trabelsi et al, 2010,
antioxidant Rasooli, Owlia, Nadooshan et al, 2010 Gawde, Cantrell, Schlegel,
2015, antifungal Prakash, Mishra, Dubey, 2014, antidiabetic Bi X, Lim J,
Henry, 2016. Cuminaldehyde is also a potential insulinotrophic component and
affects the secretion of insulin Patil, Takalikar et al, 2013. In pathophysiology
of many neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s disease fibrillation of
alpha synuclein is a major process and analysis of cuminaldehyde shows of it
being an active compound playing a pivotal role in the antifibrillation
activity Morshedi, 2015. Therefore investigating the role of cuminaldehyde
and the research around it is highly significant.   

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