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Several methodologies are available to solve a specified
task but which methodology will be chosen depends on its effectiveness and
proficiency it resolves the problem hence; intelligent solutions are given
preference.

Conventional Computing

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Conventional computing is a traditional approach that deals
with designing an algorithm for solving complex real-world problems. In this
type of approach, data is fed to the machine and the programmer states exactly
how to perform the given task. It follows a logical series of steps to reach
the conclusion. Conventional computers are also called von Neumann computers
and the major components include: memory, bandwidth, and processing.
Environmental factors are not taken into consideration i.e., the problem will
be solved according to the predefined solution whatever may be the situation.

In this case, only one problem can be solved at a given
time. Conventional computing doesn’t observe or adapt based on the situations
and is incapable of making the decisions on its own. It doesn’t guarantee
rational thinking.

Intelligent Computing

Intelligent computing is a modern approach that involves
learning and understanding the problem, and then solve the specified task
accordingly. Environmental aspects are considered. Here, the machine observes
and understands the problem, learns from the situation and then accomplish the
specified task. It uses techniques of search and pattern matching. In this
case, programmers design the AI software to give the machine only the problem
and not the steps or instructions to accomplish the task.

Here a wide range of problems can be solved at a given time
in given domain. Intelligent computing learns, observes and understands the
problem. It has the ability to stimulate the human behavior and apply cognitive
thinking.

e.g., for tic-tac-toe game, in case of conventional
computing, programmer predefines the steps and applies brute force approach
that checks all the possible conditions whereas if we apply intelligent
computing, it will take the opponent’s actions into consideration and will then
take the decision accordingly.

Another example is of a humanoid Sophia which has been
invented using AI. It is able to sense the environment and also make its own
decisions using its own cognitive thinking. 

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