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SOFTWARE
ENGINEERING: A BRIEF INSIGHT OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

                     

 

AYOBAMI
ADEYEMI (16/2934)

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SEMINAR

 

JANUARY 19, 2018

 

SUPERVISOR: DR. OLOYEDE

CO-SUPERVISOR: DR. ADEYEMI

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

The place
of AI in the era of technology cannot be overemphasized. From virtual
assistants to self- driving cars, there has nothing been more rampant than AI
spreading itself in the digital space.  While science fiction often portrays AI as robots with
human-like characteristics, AI can encompass anything as simple as search
algorithms all the way to aviation Artificial intelligence(AI) is built to simulate
the reasoning of humans. The devices are controlled by computer systems and
these systems are programmed in a way to learn, analyze and adapt. Digital assistants like Amazon’s Alexa and Apple’s Siri , along with Tesla’s Autopilot, are all powered by AI. Some forms of AI
can create visual
art or write songs. The objective of this paper is to look at various
insightful facts about AI and how it will reshape the future.

LITERATURE REVIEW

There’s little question that AI can bring
about revolutionary change. According to British computer scientist “a computer
deserves to be called intelligent if it could deceive a human into believing it
was human” (Turing,1950), So what is intelligence?

 Intelligence
is the ability of:

·     
understanding

·     
abstract thought

·     
communication

·     
reasoning

·     
learning

·     
planning

·     
problem solving

 

A
computer which exhibits the features of intelligence is said to be an AI. That
said, the term “artificial intelligence” coined by John McCarthy is defined as” The science and engineering of making intelligent
machines, especially intelligent computer programs” (McCarthy, 1956).
Artificial intelligence can also be said to be enabling
computer devices to exhibit the reasoning of humans. These computer devices are
programmed in a unique way, which allows for them to analyze, learn and adapt
to any given environment. It critically
examines human behavior in the problem solving process and then makes judgement
accordingly. The ability to adapt and decide is embedded into AI so that smart
decisions can be taken in any given situation. AI can be broken down into two
forms, machine learning and deep learning.

·     
Machine Learning: Machine
learning provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from
experience without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the
development of computer programs that can access data and use it learn for
themselves. Atypical example of machine learning is  diagnosing depression based on speech patterns.

·     
Deep
learning: Deep learning
requires a complex architecture that mimics a human brain’s neural networks in
order to make sense of patterns, even with noise, missing details, and other
sources of confusion. While the possibilities of deep learning are vast, so are
its requirements: you need big data, and tremendous computing power.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

Artificial Intelligence
cuts across various fields of technology, the essentials of AI remain the same,
deep learning embedded in machine learning. AI uses up massive amounts of data in
order to carry out given tasks. Take cars for example, data about traffic has
to be collected as well as milestones and a lot of sensors come into play when
auto parking or using voice recognition.

 

 

 

BENEFITS OF AI

·      Incredible precision,
accuracy, and speed.

·      Replace humans in
repetitive, tedious tasks

·      They can think logically
without emotions, making rational decisions with less or no mistakes.

DRAWBACKS OF AI

·      Can cost a lot of money and
time to build, rebuild, and repair

·      Humans can become too
dependent on AI and lose their mental capacities.

·      AI as robots can supersede
humans, enslaving us.

DEVELOPMENT

In the field of automobiles, features that
assist drivers without completely taking control of the wheel such as
intelligent cruise control has already been introduced, this feature unlike the
original cruise control actually adjusts the speed of the car constantly by
determining the kind of terrain, the weather conditions of the environment and
the nearby cars. At the same time, many of these automobile companies have included
AI based safety features such as collision avoidance systems while parking and automatic
braking. Further developments in the area of self-driving cars are
poised to make driving a thing of the past.

AI can also be found in smartphones. In
many android phones, google Photos uses AI and machine learning to identify
objects or human faces and group the ones with common elements and the same
faces into specific folders automatically. Moreover, Google’s messaging app,
Allo. This app uses AI and language processing tools to understand how a user
converses with friends and built in personal assistant on the messenger. This
is done by identifying the unique context and tense construction of the user in
a previous messages so it can provide accurate suggestions. Because of this
typing is made easy on smartphones.

 

Furthermore, AI can be found in digital assistants;
digital assistants are cloud-based programs which require internet connected
devices or applications to function. examples of such applications include Siri
on apple devices and Cortana on Microsoft devices. There are also devices which
provide digital assistance, the most common one by amazon is called Alexa. with
Alexa, users are able to use simple language requests like “what is the time”
or “play jazz music”.

In addition, AI can also be found in
gaming. Current generations of computer and video games offer much more complex
environments with expertly developed, stable, physics based simulation. Machine
learning techniques allow games to adapt to the strengths and weaknesses of a
player, or to learn from their opponents by imitating their tactics. A pure
example of this is witnessed in football games which provide a wide range of
difficulty levels that adapt to the users’ gameplay.

Artificially
intelligent shopping assistants could even change the way
we shop.

CONCLUSION

In a nutshell, Artificial
intelligence is a pivot for major technological advancement, a lot of gadgets
use AI for better interaction and simplicity. If tech experts are to be believed, artificial
intelligence (AI) has the potential to transform the world. But those
same experts don’t agree on what kind of effect that transformation will
have on the average person. Some believe that humans will be much better
off in the hands of advanced AI systems, while others think it will lead
to our inevitable downfall.

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLOGRAPHY

AI: the new driving force in the automotive industry. (2017,
September 15). Retrieved January 21, 2018, from http://www.information-age.com/ai-new-driving-force-automotive-industry-123468560/

 

Artificial Intelligence: What It Is and How It Really Works.
(2016, December 28). Retrieved January 21, 2018, from
https://futurism.com/1-evergreen-making-sense-of-terms-deep-learning-machine-learning-and-ai/

 

Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence. (n.d.).
Retrieved January 21, 2018, from

Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence

Michalski, R. S., Carbonell, J. G., & Mitchell, T. M.
(1983). Machine learning: an artificial intelligence approach. Palo
Alto, CA: Tioga Pub. Co.

 

Rhalibi, A. E., Wong, K. W., & Price, M. (2009, March 24).
Artificial Intelligence for Computer Games. Retrieved January 21, 2018, from
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcgt/2009/251652/

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