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South
Africa is a country located in the southern part of the African Continent. With
the population of approximately 57.91 million people, the nation depends
majorly on mining, agriculture and tourism as its economic backbone. The World
Bank report of 2014 ranked South Africa as an upper middle-income country. The
nation has proved to be the most liberal economy in the African continent with
a GDP of $350.1 billion. According to the world, the economic forum of 2015,
the country per capita GDP was at $6,683. The diverse economy of South Africa
is driven by other sectors like manufacturing, construction, water and
electricity, finance, real estate, transport, communication and particular
services. The effort by the governance to reduce poverty has been successful
through the enhancement of government social service. Emphasis on economic
growth, improvement in the infrastructure and curbing unemployment has also
played a significant role in empowering the citizens. It is worth mentioning
the green economy has spurred industrial development as well as creation of
vast employment opportunities. The 2014-15 global competitiveness reports
ranked South Africa as a low-risk investment destination especially for the
potential investors who would like to establish businesses in Africa (Stats SA,
2014).

Human
Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus which causes deficits in immunity,
a syndrome where the failure of the human’s immune system makes the body to be
susceptible to opportunistic attacks, infections and even cancer to thrive. In
human being, the HIV virus destroys the CD4 cells which is normally the defense
cell mechanisms. The virus can be spread through several methods that permit
contact of fluids and blood with the infected person. These methods include;
unprotected sexual contact with an infected person, transfusion of the blood
infected with the HIV virus, injection with contaminated objects and exposure
of broken skin or even wound to the infected body fluids. Another prominent way
in which the HIV virus can be transmitted is through mother to child during
pregnancy, birth or when breastfeeding. The rate of the virus progressions in
the host CD4 cells varies depending on age, access to healthcare, genetic
immune system and the existence of other deadly infections. The disease can be
prevented by safer sex practices like the use of condoms, abstinence and
screening. Needles need be sterile before being used for any intravenous
purposes. Avoidance of sharing of particular items like shaving and cutting
blades, tooth brush among others should be adhered to. Blood and organs from
donors should be thoroughly screened before transfusion to make sure that the
beneficiaries are not receiving infected blood. In case of infected persons,
Antiretroviral Drugs and medication would moderate the impact of the virus to
the immune of the individual. A proper healthcare follow-up plan is recommended
to check on the CD4 counts and other tests to keep off opportunistic infections.

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Statistics
South Africa (2017) estimated people living with HIV AIDS to be 7.06 million
representing 12.6 % of the total population. The increase in HIV prevalence in
South Africa has been attributed to the extensive treatment program that has
witnessed survival of people living with HIV. Women aged 15-49 represent
21.17%, adults aged 15-49 is 17.98% while 4.6% is the prevalence among the
youth aged 15-24. These figures establish that the most vulnerable populations
are the women especially the adolescent ones. Majority of the adolescent women
in South Africa engage in risky sexual behavior with the men who might be older
than them. This vulnerability and high prevalence in women can also be due to
lack of access to reproductive health and family planning services. There is
also low levels of HIV and risks Knowledge. The South African National HIV
Survey (2017) confirms that females have a significantly higher HIV prevalence
across age, race and locality compared to their male counterparts. The findings
of the survey also reveal that blacks had the highest prevalence compared to
other race. The prevalence in the rural areas was also higher than the urban
areas in the various provinces in South Africa. Customarily, the prevalence
distribution by age was low for children under the age of 16. The prevalence
rises steadily with the age from 20 to 34 years. For more elderly persons aged
60 and above the prevalence drops significantly. 

There has been a
concerted effort by the government, Nog governmental organizations and the
community in general to curb the HIV virus. There has been an elaborate plan to
eliminate the transfer from mother to child. Myburgh (2017), explores how the
prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) has been supported by
the government and civil groups; with the introduction of lifelong triple
antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all the lactating female parents who are HIV
positive. There is also a dedicated three months testing for all the negative
pregnant and lactating mothers. The 2017 South African survey found out that
South Africa had the world most comprehensive ART programs and exposure. The
voluntary male circumcision has also been spread across the country to reduce
the risk of HIV transmission and risky sexual behaviors. Peer approach is
widely used to access groups like sex workers and adolescents. The
nongovernmental organizations have devised mobile clinics in the various
provinces to enhance community based testing campaigns. These have motivated
the involvement of the communities in the development and implementation of the
policies.

            Juliana and Michael (2009) explore the developments of
children’s act in South Africa that grants them the rights to access
contraceptives, sex education and reproduction information. This Act allowed
public schools to distribute condoms and reproductive health information.
However, this Act faced significant challenges for instance; a concern by
parents and teachers that the availability of condoms would promote sexual
activity. Organizations have taken a step in fighting HIV in South Africa.
Society for Family Health (SFH) is one kind of a non-governmental organization
that socializes in HIV Testing, CD4 count testing, and voluntary medical
circumcision. The organizations have an elaborate school based HIV prevention
and sexuality programs. The website of the organization is
http://www.sfh.co.za/ with its headquarter at Johannesburg. 

HIVSA
(http://hivsa.com) is an organization that empowers the community affected by
HIV and AIDS by building resilience and developing capacity. The organizations
projects are majorly tailored towards addressing the HIV pandemic. Some
projects are gender specific, to reduce HIV infection for instance among
adolescents girls and young women. Children living with HIV are also supported
and empowered by the organization in many regards. Access to medication and
care is enhanced to ensure that the infected individuals are not traumatized or
victimized by their families, work place or even their peers. Conclusively, the
objectives of this organization are to prevent, treat and care to maximize the
health outputs of the community. The leverage on the latest and modern
technology to engage the community has pivoted the organization towards more
tremendous success and achievements. 

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