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Stealthy Sugar:The Hidden Sugar in FruitsBiologyExperimental Investigation___________________________________________Signature of Sponsoring Teacher___________________________________________Signature of School Science Fair Coordinator TeacherNaomi-Erin A. Boateng640 W. Scott St. Chicago, IL 60610Grade 8Table of ContentsAcknowledgments Page 3Purpose and Hypothesis Page 4Review of Literature Pages 5-6Materials and Procedure Page 7-8Results Page 9-10Conclusion, Reflection, Application Page 11-12Reference List Page 13AcknowledgmentsI would like to thank my mother for procuring the necessary materials to do this experiment. I would also like to thank my father for helping me choose and complete this amazing project.Thank you!Purpose and HypothesisThe purpose of this experiment was to compare the glucose levels of different fruits and relate them to diabetes. The glucose levels of five different fruit blends were tested in comparison with two controls. My prediction was that the orange blend would have the highest glucose levels because oranges taste sweeter than the other fruits.Review of LiteratureHow do the glucose levels in different foods compare? How can they be linked to diabetes? Diabetes mellitus or Diabetes is a group of diseases that result in too much sugar in the blood. 1 Typically diabetes is maintained and sometimes cured using a healthy lifestyle and diet. The diabetic diet commonly consists of fruits, nuts, whole wheat-fibers, and fish. This diet sparked my interest in creating this experiment. 2 But in order to do this experiment, one must answer the following questions: What is glucose? What makes a person diabetic? How is glucose digested? Glucose is a type of sugar gotten from consumption of foods. It is used in the body for energy and as it travels through the bloodstream it is called blood glucose or blood sugar.3Our bodies convert food into energy. We get energy and calories from carbohydrates, protein and fat, but our main source of energy is from carbohydrates. A hundred percent of carbohydrates that are eaten are converted into glucose, as a result, eating carbohydrates affect blood sugar levels quickly. Some of the protein eaten is turned into glucose but protein has a minuscule effect on blood sugar. Glucose from fat is slowly absorbed and doesn’t cause an immediate rise in blood sugar. 2 Glucose is a monosaccharide (most basic unit of a carbohydrate) containing six carbon atoms. It is referred to as an aldohexose.  4Diabetes is a group of diseases that involve problems with insulin. Typically the pancreas releases insulin to help the body store and utilize the sugar and fat that is eaten. Diabetes occurs when the pancreas produces little or no insulin, or when the body does not respond appropriately to insulin. 5 There are two typical types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease that causes the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas to be destroyed. It prevents the body from being able to produce enough insulin to adequately regulate blood glucose levels. Type 2 is a metabolic disorder that results in high blood glucose levels because the body is ineffective at using the insulin it has produced or producing enough insulin. 6 There are two ranges that are healthy for each health type: Preprandial range (fasting) and postprandial range (2 hours after meals have been eaten). Blood sugar is normally measured in milligrams of glucose per deciliter. Non-diabetic glucose levels are 100 mg/dL preprandial and less than 140 mg/dL postprandial. Diabetic glucose levels for Type 1 diabetes are 72 mg/dL preprandial and 162 mg/dL postprandial. 7 Glucose levels for Type 2 diabetes are 72 mg/dL preprandial and 153 mg/dL postprandial.3Glucose is made from foods rich in carbohydrates such as bread, potatoes, and fruits. As food is eaten it travels down the esophagus to the stomach. In the stomach, acids and enzymes break it down into small pieces. During the digestive process, glucose is released, where it enters the intestines and it is absorbed into the bloodstream. Once in the blood, insulin helps glucose get into the cells. 4In what ways do the glucose levels of different foods compare and how can they be attributed to diabetes? Foods are made up of a naturally occurring monosaccharide known as D-Glucose and it is a primary source of energy for living organisms. 4 These findings could be helpful for people who want to watch their blood sugar levels. Materials and ProcedureMaterialsMaterialQuantityWaterBlenderGlucose Testing StripsApple blendOrange blendPear blendBanana blendHoneydew Melon blend10 milliliters121 strips10 milliliters10 millimeters10 millimeters10 millimeters10 millimetersProcedureDip reagent end of glucose testing strip in 10 milliliters of water and 10 milliliters of glucose tablet solution (made of 1 glucose tablet and 10 milliliters of water).After 30 seconds, compare the color on the strip to the color chart.Dip reagent end of glucose testing strip in 10 milliliters of Apple blend.After 30 seconds, compare the color on the strip to the color chart.Repeat with other blends: orange, banana, pear, and honeydew melon..Results According to my experiment, the banana blend had the highest glucose levels; measuring higher than the glucose tablet solution. Food/Liquid fluid ouncesNumber- ColorWater- Negative Control0-BlueGlucose Tablet Solution- Positive Control2,000- Dark brownApple blend1,000-BrownOrange blend 1,000-BrownPear blend1,000-BrownBanana blend3,000-Extremely Dark brownHoneydew Melon blend 500-TanConclusion, Reflection, and ApplicationConclusionMy science fair project was about how the levels of glucose of different fruits compared and their relation to diabetes. I wanted to find out which fruit had the highest glucose levels. I hypothesized that the orange blend would have the highest glucose level because it tastes sweeter than the other fruits. I found out that my hypothesis was incorrect because the banana had the highest glucose level of 3,000 while orange had a glucose level of only 1,000.Reflection I believe that the test was fair and the results were accurate. To improve my project, next time I could broaden the range of foods that I tested. I could use different foods like pasta and rice. I could also use different liquids and test orange juice, milk, cranberry juice, apple cider and apple cider vinegar. For a new project, I could test the amount of fat in certain foods and find a connection to conditions like hypertension and obesity.ApplicationThis experiment can be applied to real life because diabetes is a very important disease with terrible effects. Typically diabetic patients are told to eat fruits. But the amount of sugar in these fruits are not always considered.  Fruits like bananas, pears, apples, and oranges have high amounts of glucose. This experiment helps shed light on the high sugar content in fruits.  The results of the experiment are important to the fields of endocrinology and general medicine. Endocrinology is the field that specializes in the function and diseases of the secretion glands such as diabetes. Endocrinologists could use this test to change lifestyle improvements suggested to diabetic patients. Reference List1Diabetes | Type 1 Diabetes | Type 2 Diabetes | MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://medlineplus.gov/diabetes.html2 What Is Glucose? (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.webmd.com/diabetes/glucose-diabetes#13 Hanson, M. (n.d.). Sources of Glucose. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://wa.kaiserpermanente.org/healthAndWellness/?item=%2Fcommon%2FhealthAndWellness%2Fconditions%2Fdiabetes%2FglucoseSources.html4 D-Glucose. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/D-glucose#section=Top5 WebMD Diabetes Center: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Tests, and Treatments. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.webmd.com/diabetes/default.htm6 Diabetes Types. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.diabetes.co.uk/diabetes-types.html7RN, D. S. (n.d.). What Is a Normal Blood Sugar Level? Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/blog/what-is-a-normal-blood-sugar-level/

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