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strategies that would alleviate the risk posed by these
circumstances. Certain rural communities in the Philippines, in particular, are
more vulnerable posed by the high risks of disaster brought about by the
geographical location of their given community. In a similar study, Baan et
al., (2010) argue that along with disaster management, improving humanitarian
recovery and mitigation of casualties and flood damages are necessary for a
society’s preparation.

A large number of civilians lack the proper education
regarding flood preparation and risk reduction that are evident in certain
communities due to the geographical setting of our country. In a study by
Rambau et al., (2012), the researchers determine that education greatly
contributes to hazard awareness and disaster preparedness among indigent communities
in South Africa. Through the administration of disaster preparedness campaigns
in institutions, the study reveals that informal communities are more
vulnerable to accumulating disasters on their given settlements. In a case
study conducted by Iglesias (2010), the researcher states that emergency
response equipment, such as life vests and electricity generators are
substantial tools in increasing the risk reduction against natural disasters or
hazards, along with safety action planning between communities.

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People are more vulnerable to accumulating injuries once
natural disasters occur. Doocy et al., (2013) claim that flood related –
mortality is a natural factor caused by the devastation of floods and the like.
Floods are the leading cause of deaths acquired from natural disasters in the
world garnering 6.8 million deaths over the past centuries, according to the
previous study. Floods are often correlated to the cause of other hazards,
specifically in landslides and debris flow. According to a previous study, Lowe
et al., (2013) suggest that examining risk factors of injuries and mortality
incorporates flood adverse health prevention strategies. Hence, with the lack
of resilience and preparation among individuals, the acquisition of injuries,  mortality and morbidity rates continue to
increase through the years.

Flooding is the predominant cause of the highest percentage
of casualties and injuries over the past decade. With the lack of proper
education and awareness amongst communities, people are more likely to
accumulate these injuries, that eventually develops to a high mortality rate.
Ohl et al., (2000) assert that most floods occur in developing sectors, where
the impact on public health is substantial, the number of people dislocated is
large, and the number of deaths is high. Though most casualties in flood result
from drowning or the physical properties of the disaster, the researchers have
observed that the aftermath of a flood prompts deaths and injuries determined
by the prevailing socioeconomic and health conditions of the given community
such as endemic infectious diseases. Specific diseases such as diarrhea,
cholera, respiratory infections, Hepatitis, typhoid fever, leptospirosis, and
diseases transmittable by insects have arisen after the occurrence of floods in
developing areas. With the insufficient supplies of food, malnutrition can be
acquired in these areas, thus Fenn (2013) states that it aggravates the effects
of the said diseases.

Over the years, emergency planning and flood preparedness
programs have been implemented and developed in different areas. Several
institutions such as the National Library of Medicine in the United States have
developed disaster risk reduction and readiness training, with the aim of
building and achieving a stronger and resilient community. The National Library
of Medicine (2008) has developed virtual reality simulations, computer gaming
and design technologies that reinforce the disaster preparedness training,
resulting from the continuous development of technology. In the context of the
Philippines, the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (2014)
develops a National Disaster Response Plan, wherein response clusters, such as
the Food and Non – Food Items and the Protection Camp Coordination,  are conducted regarding advocacy and proper
education. Accessible and safe evacuation centers, public health protection
services and the use of food resources are amongst the several mitigation
strategies covered by the readiness plan. Fizri et al., (2014) highlight the
necessity of the incorporation of flood kits and life vests or jackets for each
family member.

There is a need to investigate on the potential of a first
aid life vest on the mitigation of flood accumulated casualties to escape its
negative impact. Due to the significance of flood protocols and related
equipment, it is implied that the inclusion of a first aid life vest in
developing areas or rural communities would lessen the potential damage to
property, loss of lives and injuries. First aid kits, life vests and other
floatation devices are given emphasis during disaster preparedness campaigns
resulting from the importance of  possessing
these materials. These equipments pose disaster risk reduction and the
application of disaster management strategies during an occurrence of a natural
disaster or hazard. Proper knowledge and preparedness would decrease the number
of deaths and possible injuries, thus augmenting a more resilient community.

In recent decades, several researchers have sought to
determine factors that would contribute to the mitigation of the aftermath
brought about natural disasters, particularly, flooding. Due to the increasing
rates of mortality and morbidity in certain nations, focus has been given on
the rising issue, thus programs and advanced measures have been developed to
prevent further detrimental losses among flood prone communities. In lieu with
this concern, Ohl et al., (2000) assert that majority of floods occur in
developing areas, wherein there is a substantial impact on public health, a
large number of people dislocated, and a high number of deaths accumulated. The
physical properties and nature of the flood has also caused other negative
effects such as the acquisition of endemic infectious diseases in developing
areas.

            In
humanitarian disaster related environments, Ozguven et al., (2007) argue that
little research is available regarding inventory management. A distinction
between commodities that are essential in any kind of disaster, and commodities
that focus on a specific kind of disaster must be done to determine the
response – generated materials that can be kept in stock. Due to the lack of
sufficient distinction between the two factors, the researchers have developed
a stochastic model for safety stock levels of the respective commodities. In
accordance to the previous study, Balcick et al., (2008) further differentiate
the classification between the two types of commodities, wherein the first type
consists of critical mandatory items needed at the onset of a specific
disaster, while the second type is composed of regularly consumed commodities.

Due to the lack of research on the field of inventory
management at the onset of the decade, Leeuw et al., (2009) aim to develop a
framework of the logistical aspects of emergency preparedness in flood disaster
prevention, consisting of four main aspects: demand management, supply
management, inventory management and resource management. Each aspect is given
a detailed emergency response plan that focuses on the logistic field and
decision making. In the aspect of inventory management, there is a need on
deciding inventory levels during disaster preparation for each of the selected
materials that are necessary. In addition, Sutton et al., (2006) integrate the development
of disaster plans, evacuation plans and the acquisition of equipment and
supplies that reinforce response activities. The researchers claim that these
are substantial to the dimensions of preparedness of oneself, and the community
in a larger scale.

Several communities have integrated disaster risk reduction
and management campaigns that would aid in combating the given issue. In a
recent study conducted by Fizri et al., (2014), every household was advised to
assemble a flood preparedness kit for each family member. The study highlights
that the inclusion of life vests and other floatation devices, as well as its
proper usage, would promote better capacity building of flood affected rural
communities. Moreover, Maidl et al., (2015) claim that technology has
contributed to the visualization of natural hazards and flood risk information
due to the development of the hazard maps. Through the concept of flood risk
communication, risk preparedness is raised by hazard maps that is made
accessible to the public. With the utilization of hazard maps, inhabitants and
property owners are given the responsibility in risk management. With the rise
of technology, another innovative response has been introduced in the study by
Tsai et al., (2015), wherein the researchers have developed a flood protection
game for disaster education. According to the study, the game benefits flood
disaster education through the cause of behavior change towards disaster
preparation.        

In the context of the utilization of a life vest or life
jacket, there have been several researches that focus on that specific field to
determine the advantages of its incorporation in disaster prevention,
mitigation and in safety procedures. Quistberg et al., (2014) affirms that 85%
of drowning incidents in boating, occur due to the lack of a life vest or life
jacket. In addition, Maxim (2015) informs that sporting a life vest increases
the probability of survival of individuals, long enough for them to be rescued.
Furthermore, Viaroux (2016), further strengthens the previous claims for there
is an 80%  chance of increased survival
with the proper usage of the life vest.

Majority of the related researchers have highlighted the
relevance of the assimilation of disaster prevention strategic plans and emergency
response campaigns to the resilience of a community as a whole. Baan et al.,
(2010) assert that for a society’s preparation, disaster management,
improvement of humanitarian recovery and mitigation of casualties and flood
damages are necessary. The proper exploitation of flood related equipment were
included in several studies to highlight the aid these commodities bring to
their respective users. Iglesias (2010) expresses that emergency response
equipment, such as life vests and electricity generators are substantial tools
in increasing the risk reduction against natural disasters or hazards, along
with safety action planning between communities. Hence, in a study by Price
(2008), the researcher emphasizes the importance of disaster management in decreasing
possible damage of property and casualties in urban areas. Therefore, civilians
must be properly educated regarding the implementation of the given systems,
strategic plans, and safety measures of their given community, for the lack of
education serves as a huge determining factor as seen in the study of Rambau et
al., (2012).

However, this view is challenged by
recent data showing. Bennett et al., (2013) suggest that laws regarding the use
of life vests, exhibited behavioral change in the group members, particularly,
amongst children. Reports have been gathered indicating the discomfort children
experience upon sporting the life vest, which eventually leads to the
resistance of wearing it. The researchers have identified that an estimated 15%
of drowning victims sported the proper use of floatation equipment, such as the
life vest. Even with the inclusion of a life vest, a small quantity of boat
passengers drowned as shown in the given statistic. A large number of the
population refuse to wear the said floatation gear, which deserves as a
contributing factor in the increase of injuries and casualties. but the
experiments were performed on recreational boaters, and therefore suspects a
difference of results when applied to inhabitants of flood prone settlements.
These approaches become increasingly unreliable when compared to the
effectivity of life vests amongst boaters for there would be an increase in
interest on the utilization of a life vest in disaster preparation for the
there is a higher risk of accumulating danger brought about by the devastation
of the disaster.

A considerable amount of research
has been made regarding the effectivity and importance of life vests and first
aid kits on flood preparedness and management, but little research focused on
the emergency response equipment themselves. Research has tended to focus on
certain systems and programs developed for the mitigation of flood casualties,
rather than the development of innovative equipment that may aid the user at
times of disaster and peril. As a result, no comprehensive theory appears to
exist. In spite of these early observations, the mechanism of the first aid kit
that is convertible to a life vest has remained unclear due to the lack of
sufficient information  regarding the given
topic.

The aim of this paper is to generate
an emergency response equipment that would strengthen the capacity building of
certain flood prone communities and mitigate the inimical effects prompted by
the given natural hazard. The researchers would look into the creation of a
handheld bag or first aid kit, crafted from the material of a floatation
device, which enables its transformation to a life vest upon deconstruction.
The study seeks to determine if an incorporated First Aid Life Vest would decrease
the rate of casualties of developing areas that are at risk upon the strike of
a disaster. The researchers would test the effectiveness of the life vest
through different clearance tests, which would guarantee its success and safety
upon proper usage. The purpose here is to document the innovative technology of
the First Aid Life Vest that may benefit the community for commercial use once
approved by the authorities. 

The study tested the capability and
effectiveness of the development of a First Aid Life Vest in the reduction of
flood related fatalities. The study focuses on a strategy for the residents of
a specific community that are isolated by the high levels of flood posed by the
repercussions of a disaster. The paper introduces a novel architecture for
Barangay Daang Bakal, situated in the premises of Mandaluyong City, in the
National Capital Region of the Philippines. This research presents data on the
effectiveness of the First Aid Life Vest upon its examination and testing. The
paper proposes a formal procedure that would survey the interest of the
specified community regarding the integration of the First Aid Life Vest and
test the durability of the safety product through several tests, such as the
scratch resistor test and the flotation test.

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