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The role of an adult providing for the basic needs of childrenIn order to ensure the child is being looked after and their needs are being met, nappy changing routines are essential. A child’s nappy needs to be changed on average around 12 times a day or more if needed. To change a childs nappy correctly and suffiently the adult will need; a clean nappy, a changing unit or a changing mat (which you can lay on the floor) baby wipes or alternativly a bowl of warm water and cotton wool or a clean cloth, a cream which acts as a barrier against nappy rash and nappy bags to put the used nappy in.To change the childs nappy the adult should wipe away most of the faeces using the front part of the nappy then gently tuck the nappy under the childs bottom with the clean side facing up. The adult should then use the baby wipes to clean the childs bottom whilst also carefully lifting the childs legs up with their ankles in order to make sure everywhere is clean. Then the adult should apply a thin layer of cream to the child’s bottom and remove the used nappy from under the child and place it in the nappy sack along with the soiled baby wipes or cotton wool. Once thats been done you can place a new clean nappy under the childs bottom and then fasten it over their tummy. As the child starts to get older it is important to encourage the child to be more independent. Potty training should start when the child is physically ready, potty training is a new skill for the child to learn. It’s best to go at the child’s pace and be patient with them, once a childs ready they can control their bladder and want to be kept clean and dry. The best way to encourage potty training is when there is no big disruptions or changes to the familys routine, it is important to stay consistant so that it doensn’t confuse the child. Some of the signs a child is ready to potty train are as follows; if they tell you when they are passing urine or having a poo, when they know they’ve got a wet or dirty nappy, they show you that they need to pass urine by fidgeting or going somewhere quiet or telling you in advance that they need to pass urine. Its best by gradually getting the child used to the potty and placing it where they can see it (prefably the bathroom) explain to them what the potty is used for to help them understand. You can also use the childs toys to show what the potty is used for, children learn by watching and copying. You could also see if the child is happy to sit on the potty to get used to it in between changing their nappy. Also encouraging the child to sit on the potty after meals will help them understand what its used for. A little praise from the adult once the child succeeds at using the potty will also help such as a sticker chart, it will also help to build the childs confidence. Another way to meet the basic needs of the child is washing and bathing them. To do this you need to get everything ready in advance, you’ll need to fill their bath tub with warm water (to make sure the water is at the right temperature you’ll need to use a thermometer) a towel, clean nappy, cotton wool and clean clothes. To wash the child the adult will need to dip the cotton wool into warm water (making sure its not too wet) then gently clean around the child’s eyes using a new peice of cotton wool for each eye, then clean around the childs ears and do the same with their neck, face and hands and any folds on the skin on the child. To bathe a child the water should also be warm, firstly to wash their hair the adult should support the child’s head over the water and pour the water over to wash their hair. Then gently lower the child into the tub supporting their head and shoulders also keeping their head clear of the water, they should then gently swish the water over the child paying close attention not to splash the child. Afterwards you should then lift the child out of the tub and pat them dry, making sure to dry the creases of the skin. Looking after the child’s hair, skin and teeth is also another basic need of a child. If a child has bad skin or an infection it is vital that they have the correct skincare products. A few points to avoid the skin from getting infections are to change the childs nappy often, keep the skin moisterized appropriatly and only use the specific products advised if the child has a skin allergy or condition. Babies and children should bathe daily to keep clean and hygenic as they often sweat whilst sleeping.  However it can often be the case that children shouldnt bathe everyday if they have a skin condition such as eczema, alternatively another way to keep clean is to gently clean them with warm water and cotton wool in key areas such as thier underarms, face and groin area. Children with allergys will require certain products. Head lice is quite common, to treat head lice the child will need certain treatments which may include special lotions and combs. Using adult shampoo would not be appropraite to use to wash a childs hair as it might sting the childs eyes or irritate their scalp. If a sensitive head has had harsh products that include chemicals used to it on a daily basis then it is possible that the childrens hair will always be damaged and may lead to hair loss in the future. Using gentle shampoos and gentle techniques when combing or brushing will leave the hair to its own device. Another basic need of a child is teeth care, when a baby is first born they have 20 primary teeth developed in the jaw, to prevent creating bad bacteria the adult could use a damp washcloth gently over the babies gums after feeds. Once the child has a few teeth showing, brushing them with a soft childs toothbrush will help to keep their teeth clean and healthy if the routine is consistant. Children ages 1-3 should only use toothpaste the size of a pea if their cavity risk is high, if they have low cavity risk then a wet toothbrush would be the best thing to use. From ages 3-6 children should also be using a small amount of toothpaste applied by the adult.Meal time routines is also another basic need of the child which the adult is responsible for. Children of all ages benefit from routines and it is important they have consistency. Children should have their meals and snacks at the same time everyday. If a meal time is going to change the child should be made aware in advance to avoid behaviour issues that might occur when the child faces unexpected change. To set a mealtime routine in place the adult should make children aware of how long it will be until their meal is ready, which allows the child to finish whatever activity they may be doing and prepare themselfs. Also before meals the adult could implement tasks should as setting the table once they have washed their hands. Adults should also promote healthy habits for the child when it comes to meal times, if the child is distracted by the tv or electronics then this may encourage over eating and decreases socialization. Giving children assigned seats at the table and a place mat can help them identify their space for eating. Working in partnership with any other organisations it is essential in order to identify any additional needs the child may have and to safeguard the children in the adults care. It is important to remember that the practitioner must act on any sort of concerns they may have as it is their responsibility to ensure that they have the child’s best interests at heart at all times.  The benefits of working in partnership means that the pracitioner could identify a problem that the parents didn’t pick up on and once the problem has been addressed then the childs parents and the practitioners can work together to solve this and do whatever necassary to help the child. Working in partnership involves parents, practitioners and families working together to benefit the children, each recognizes, respects and values what the other does and says. In addition children would benefit from feeling more secure when moving from one setting to another with greater confidence. When the pracititoners and parents work together the practitioners can help the children to develop a sense of belonging and identity by actively engaging and finding out about the childs traditions and beliefs and family values. Pracitioners can also get a better understanding of the children and their families and use the information to make learning more enjoyable and rewarding for the children. When working in partnership the childs parents could also benefit from having more knowledge and increased confidence in their own parenting skills and they could also learn more about their childrens experiences outside the home and use the imformation to support their childs learning and development more effectively and effeiciently, they may also feel more involved in their childs learning and development. The parents will also feel more at ease and comfortable visiting the setting, talking and planning with the practitioners. 

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