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THE EFFECTIVENESS BETWEEN AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC EXERCISE TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION OF OVERWEIGHT FEMALE PATIENTINTRODUCTION

1.1.     Background
of Study

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            Overweight and
obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, which negatively
affects the characteristic of health-related physical fitness. Currently, more
than 35% of men and close to 40% of women are overweight or obese (Kong et al., 2016; Rostás et al.,
2017; Wang, Tan, & Cao, 2015).
Based on the study by Strasser (2013), both overweight and obesity are characterized by the accumulation
of excessive levels of body fat. Intraabdominal (viscera fat) increases by over
300% between the ages of 25 and 65 years, and this creates an increased risk
for the development of heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and
some cancers. According to Vissers et al. (2013),
obesity is associated with an increased risk of comorbidities and increased
risk of premature death.

            Health-related
physical fitness consist of body composition, cardiovascular function, muscular
function, and body flexibility. All these components are important factors
contributing to health and wellbeing Wang et al. (2015). Body composition is of interest to nutritionist because of the
impact that nutritional status, specific diet, exercise, disease, and genetic
can have on the major components of the human body. These components can be
considered at atomic, molecular, cellular, tissue system, and whole body
levels. Most interest has been directed at the two-compartment model, which
divides the body into fat mass and fat-free mass (FFM), largely because fat
proportion is a major issue in health (Brodie, Moscrip, & Hutcheon,
1998).

            Besides, according
to Donges and Duffield (2012), It
has become standard practice for many health care professionals to pursue
optimization of relative FFM through the application of
“outcome-specific” modes of exercise such as aerobic endurance
training or resistance exercise training. Moreover, prescribed exercise is one
such intervention, as it increase energy expenditure, preserves free-fat mass
(including bone and skeletal muscle), and has been shown to be effective in
decreasing body fat in adults (Atlantis, Barnes, & Singh,
2006).
Aerobic training promotes changes in aerobic capacity, increasing mitochondrial
oxidative capacities and capillary density in skeletal muscle, whereas
resistance training increase muscle mass, which should increase maximal aerobic
capacity (Castro et al., 2017).

1.2.     Research Problem

                Exercise
training can induce weight reduction and modulate body composition. According
to Goran, Fields, Hunter, Herd, and
Weinsier (2000),
total body fatness and aerobic are frequently used in association with each
other, and it is often implied that these physiological parameters are strongly
inter-related. Both body fatness and aerobic fitness have been shown to be risk
factors for future health outcome, but it is unclear whether these effects are
related to one another or are independent risk factors. Some recent studies
have shown that there are separate and independent health effects of aerobic
fitness and fatness.

                The
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), consistently support the need for
more than 150–250 min/week of moderate intensity physical activity to prevent
weight gain. However, there is currently a lack of evidences for overweight
individuals on feasible exercise strategies for weight loss and prevention of
weight regain / improvement in body composition (Chih-Hui et al., 2017). It
is also unclear whether health benefits are limited to aerobic training or
anaerobic training that contribute more on the effectiveness in improving body
composition of overweight patients.

 

1.3.     Purpose of
study

                In
order to understand the problems as described above, the purpose of this
propose study is to determine the most effective exercise training between
aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on body composition of overweight female
patients.

 

1.4.     Research
Questions

                The
following are the research questions that guides this propose study ;

            RQ1 :
What is the effect after getting the aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on
body composition in overweight female patient?

            RQ2 :
Is there any difference on body composition in the effectiveness between group
that received aerobic exercise training and group that received anaerobic
exercise training?

1.5.     Research
Objectives

                The
objectives of this propose study are ;

1.     
To
determine the effect after getting the aerobic and anaerobic exercise training
on body composition in overweight female patient, and

2.     
To
determine the difference on body composition in the effectiveness between group
that received aerobic exercise training and group that received anaerobic
exercise training.

 

1.6.     Research
Hypothesis

 

Null Hypothesis

H01 : There is no statistically significant difference
on body composition in the effectiveness between group that received aerobic
exercise training and group that received anaerobic exercise training.

 

1.7.     Significant
of the study

                This
study is focusing on the effectiveness between aerobic and anaerobic exercise
training toward body composition of overweight female patients. The ability of
them to choose exercises will give a great impact on their current health. As
in this study will be provided a training program for overweight female
patients to improve their body composition, so it will help them to choose a
better exercises.

            Thus, the results
of the findings in this study will help the overweight people especially young
adult female to improve their body composition. Besides, by having this study
it can create the awareness on the important of having physical activity or
exercise training among overweight people. Moreover, it also help to promote a
healthy lifestyle towards them. Furthermore, with this study, it can help to
enhance the coaches knowledge to improvise the training program and provide the
variation of training in improving body composition.

 

1.8.     Operational
definition of term

Body Composition –
in this study, it includes body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat
percentage, free-fat mass and lean mass.

Aerobic Exercise –
Physical activity with low intensity (20% – 60%) and long duration (30 minutes
per exercise) which training includes 4 times per week. In this study will be
using cycling ergometer and walking on treadmill.

Anaerobic Exercise –
Physical activity with high intensity (70% – 100%) and not above the patients
maximum heart rate that will be monitored using Polar Accurex monitor (Kempele,
Finland).

 

·        
Limitations

                               
i.           
The
persistence of the respondents in doing the 10 weeks exercise training program.
This is because respondents are volunteered themselves to join this study, so their
involvement are questionable whether they join just to fulfill their free times
or enthusiasm to improve their body composition.

 

·        
Delimitations

                               
i.           
The
target respondents in this study are sedentary lifestyle overweight female
students in Uitm Shah Alam only.

                             
ii.           
The
target age of respondents in this study is between 18 to 25 years old only.

 

·        
Assumption

                               
i.           
The
assumption that would be are the capabilities to get 60 volunteered respondents
to fulfill this research is unknown.

 

 

 

LITERATURE
REVIEW

2.1.     Introduction

            Nowadays, exercise
training is frequently used for the treatment of overweight or obesity.
According to Wang et al. (2015), There is evidence that exercise training decrease body fat,
improve cardiovascular function, and increase muscle strength in obese or
overweight people. The exercise intensities are usually determined by a certain
percentage of the participants’ maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)
or maximal heart rate (HR).

            This proposed
study intense to find out the most effective exercise training between aerobic
and anaerobic exercise training on body composition of overweight female
patients. This section will provide some research from others researchers which
have some related to the proposed study that will be conducted. A review
of  literature is provided to aid in the
understanding of the use of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training to improve body
composition.

           

2.2.     Related
literature

2.2.1. Effect of
10 weeks exercise training program

                 The purpose of an experimental study by Donges and Duffield (2012) was
to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training, resistance
exercise training, or a control condition on absolute and relative fat mass or
free-fat mass in the total body and regions of interest of sedentary overweight
middle-aged males and females. The subjects in the aerobic endurance training
group completed a cycling training intervention on stationary cycle ergometer while
the subjects in the resistance training group completes a whole body training intervention
which is chest press, shoulder press, lateral pull down, seated row, leg press,
leg curl and lunges (Panatta Sport, Apiro, Italy). The result form the study by
Donges and Duffield (2012) are,
changes in absolute and relative total body fat mass and total body free-fat mass
and regions of interest fat mass and regions of interest free-fat mass were
determined. After training, both female exercise groups showed equivalent or greater
relative improvements in strength and aerobic fitness than did the male
exercise groups (p

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