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This essay will look at
and compare two different topics and how they both influence and affect
individuals. Firstly globalisation and the ways in which it has an influence on
individuals will be examined, then how first impressions and personality traits
influence individuals. Individuals, in the context of this essay, means a
single human considered separate from a society or community. Globalisation is
the process of collaboration and assimilation among companies, people and
governments of different countries, a process motivated by worldwide trade and
investment abetted by information and technology from one nation to another.

Globalisation influences
every facet of an individual’s life; their religion, food, clothing, language,
transport, music and more. However, the impact it has on an individual varies
greatly depending on several factors such as location, income and education. Generally,
globalisation has a more positive impact on those who live in developed
countries because individuals in these countries will benefit from a drop in the
price of goods, they will have a wide range of choice for foods, clothing, cars
and entertainment, they will be made more aware of different cultures and will
have the opportunity to travel freely to a number of countries.

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Conversely, individuals
in developing countries will be influenced negatively by globalisation. Child
labour in some developing countries such as Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uzbekistan
and many more is a huge problem, with 215 million children under the age of 15
working illegally (The Open University, 2013a). These children, along with
other individuals of varying ages, are forced to work in ‘sweatshops’ or in
agriculture for little to no money in order to produce the vast amounts of
goods being demanded by individuals in developed countries.

Of course,
globalisation can sometimes positively influence individuals in developing
countries. The fact that individuals in developed countries are more aware of
differing cultures, foods and music, and are able to travel more freely, means
that the economy in some developing countries is growing. Tourism, for many
developing countries, is the most practical and maintainable economic
development option. Places such as Zambia and Columbia benefit from tourism,
both on a national scale and on an individual one, as numerous jobs will be
made available to local people through tourism. Individuals from countries such
as India and Jamaica can be positively influenced from globalisation by
travelling to developed countries to make and sell goods from their culture
such as clothes, foods, jewellery, perfume and much more.

Individuals in
developed countries can be influenced negatively by globalisation. One example
of this is the concerns surrounding obesity in children, which is closely
linked to the fact that individuals in developed countries now have such a wide
range of choice in food and drink, and because the price of food and drink is
so low due to the cheap labour used to produce it. The unemployment rate
increased between 2015 and 2016 in some developed countries such as Norway and Estonia
(Eurostat, 2017). It can be argued that this is partly put down to the fact
that globalisation has allowed companies to use cheap or free labour from
individuals in developing countries. The advancement in technology, which is
largely thanks to globalisation, also affects the employment in developing and
developed countries. Many jobs which once needed an individual or a group of
individuals to do, have now been replaced, or at least partially replaced, by
machines and robots, for example ticket barriers and factory workers.

A first impression,
also known as the primary effect, is the occurrence when an individual first
meets another person and forms a mental image of that person. The Open
University (2013b) defines a trait as “a personality characteristic such as
whether someone is generally outgoing or shy.” The Open University (2013b)
looks at how Abraham Luchins (1957) cited in Weston (1999) tested the
importance of the primary effect using some information on a fictional boy
named Jim. His results suggested that the majority of people rely more on their
first impressions of people than on any information they later receive on the
person.

Many real-life individuals
will be unfairly judged due to the first impressions others have of them. This
can have a wide range of effects on an individual; from small scale examples
such as a girl not being picked for her school’s football team because the
coach’s first impression of her is that she will not be as good as the boys,
all the way up to large scale examples such as a muscular man being
incarcerated for a crime he didn’t commit because the jury’s first impression
of him was that he was frightening.

The sequence in which
we obtain information about others is important, but so is the type of
information we find out. Solomon Asch (1946) cited in The Open University
(2013b) talks about central traits and peripheral traits. Central traits, he
says, are personality descriptions such as warm, cold, trustworthy, friendly
and generous because these are the traits that people are more concerned with
when first meeting another person. He proposes that if we learn a central trait
about an individual, for example that they are friendly, we will then assume
that they have other certain traits, such as being generous, kind and polite,
even though we have no evidence to back this up.

This “halo effect” can
be positive or negative and it greatly influences the way individuals are
viewed and therefore often how they are treated by others. It can also
influence how an individual sees themselves and can have an impact on their
behaviour. When a person’s first impression of an individual is negative the
individual may work hard to try and shake that negative first impression by
behaving and reacting in ways that they want others to view them, for example
being extra generous, funny or outgoing. 

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