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Yamahnee SimmonsMrs. McNamaraEnglish 3The Effects of Mass Incarceration in the United States    “Until justice is blind to color, until education is unaware of race, until opportunity is unconcerned with the color of men’s skin, emancipation will be a proclamation but not a fact.” (Lyndon Johnson). Whether said to be called mass incarceration, mass imprisonment or jail, this appearance attributes to the substantial increase in the number of incarcerated people in the United States. This abnormality concentrates on communities of color, immigrants, the unemployed, the undereducated, and the homeless. Hyper incarceration has led to unreasonable consequences on African American employment results, earnings, and disadvantaged families. Mass incarceration is a form of racialized social control. The majority of black men are put in prison, than white men. The soceity impact on families and communities can occur in public institutions other than prison.Social Impact of Mass Incarceration on Families & Communities    The social repercussions do not stop with prisoners themselves. “The United States has only five percent of the world’s population, it holds one quarter of all the world’s prisoners. According to recent estimates, one of every 15 black men is held in jail, state or federal prison, compared to one of every 106 white males. This racial disparity has a big impact on the life of white and black men- contributing to gaps in many domains, ranging from jobs and family life to health and mortality”. (“measuring the social impact of mass incarceration on America’s black and white families in communities”). Males incarcerated are placed with financial strains, psychological burdens, and social stigma. Many children in low-income communities of color are now growing up with an enduring possibility of consuming time in prison. “One of every three black boys born today can expect to go to jail if current trends continue.”  (Ferner) In my opinion, I don’t believe the social consequence of mass incarceration don’t stop with inmates themselves. The effect can be even greater for children, family members, and associates connected to those who were imprisoned.(“Facts about Mass Incarceration of color in U.S.”)  “A research literature suggests that having a family member sent to prison, damages the mental and physical health of those left at home. The imprisonment of a family member means one less person to contribute to household support increasing stress and making everyone less economically secure”. (“measuring the social impact of mass incarceration on America’s black and white families in communities”). No research has specified the negative consequences confronted by people attached to America’s prisoners.    “Connections to family members in prison range from 6% for white males to 44% for black females. Black women are far more likely than white women to know people in prison: 35% versus 15% for personal acquaintances; 44% versus 12% for family members; 22% versus 4% for neighbors; 17%versus 5% for someone they trust. Remarkably, the proportion of incarcerated individuals in the family network of an average black female is8.5 times higher than for the typical white women”. (“measuring the social impact of mass incarceration on America’s black and white families in communities”). The results from this study show that the prison boom affects all American’s but African American’s the most. People who are imprisoned are ejected from families, friendships, and children who have to maintain larger economic grievance and social challenges in their vacancy.   “Adjusting for population, the report finds that the U.S. prison population grew 220 percent between 1980 and 2014 despite a dramatic reduction in crime rates during that same period- violent crime rates fell by 39 percent and property crimes fell by 52 percent. The U.S. spends $80 billion on incarceration each year and over $270 billion on the entire criminal justice system at the federal, state and local levels. The U.S. employs 2.5 times more corrections officers per capita than other nations, but employs 30 percent fewer police officers per capita. In 2013, 11 states spent more on incarcerating people than on higher education, the report notes”. (“Ferner”). “On average is costing over $29,000 each year to house an inmate in federal prison. 90 percent of these expenditures are coming from state and local levels”. Actual benefits of mass incarceration are minimal. Crime rates have gone down since 1980, studies found the connection between increased prison rates and lower crime is tenuous and small. Since then the amount of incarcerated citizens in the U.S. has more than quadrupled. An unprecedented rise that can attribute to four decades of tough-on-crimes. According to the national research council, state spending on corrections increased 400 percent between 1980 and 2009. The result, prisoners are now some of the primary providers of health care, counseling, and job training to the country’s most disadvantaged groups.Relations between Crime and Incarceration   In the society, prisons are understood to be a battling with crime industry: incarcerating repeat criminals instantly and adequately diminishes corruption in the future from eliminating “untrustworthy people” from civilization and by impeding more criminals over the development effect that this brings about. Even excluding to consider the civil ramifications of imprisonment, the current standpoint neglects other measure’s effects. These incorporate damaging, faculty of crime and the illegal acts inside the penitentiary. Prison is an educational institution of unlawful acts in which convicts begin to acquire knowledge and then enhance their abilities at criminal conduct and generate relationships with other offenders. This detail, signifies that incarceration eliminates felons from social organizations that link with businesses and alternately connects them to relate with law breaking actions. Some scholars have argued that incarceration does not necessarily reduce crime, but merely relocates it behind bars. Increasing incarceration while ignoring more effective approaches will impose a heavy burden upon curst, corrections and communities, while providing a marginal impact on crime.   The relationship between crime and incarceration is complex. Researchers have struggled to quantify accurately the degree to which crime reduction is attributable to imprisonment. Among the many challenges associated with the issue are following: distinguishing between state and national trends; differing measures of crime and victimization; and, assessing various time frames for analysis. (king page 2) In addition to incarceration, studies have identified a range of factors which may affect crime, including general economic trends, employment rates, range, age, demographics, rates of drug abuse, and geographic variation.  “During the last 30 years of incarceration growth, we have learned a great deal about the financial and social costs and limited effectiveness of incarceration on crime rates. While incarceration is one factor affecting crime rates, its impact is more modest than many proponents suggest, and is increasingly subject to diminishing returns. Increasing incarceration while ignoring more effective approaches will impose a heavy burden upon courts, corrections and communities, while providing a marginal impact on crime. Policymakers should assess these dynamics and adopt balanced crime control policies that provide appropriate resources and support for programming, treatment, and community support”. (King page 3).      “The U.S currently imprison more people than any other country in the world and that this trend toward a dramatic increase in incarceration started in the late 1970s.  In 1980 there were approximately 300,000 people in jail or prison, today there are 2.2 million.  Beyond that there are just under 7 million people in prison, on parole, or on probation.  Also, in 2009 GA led the nation with 1 in 13 adults either in prison or on parole/ probation”. (“Facts about Mass Incarceration of color in U.S.”) Acknowledge if the mass imprisonment of African Americans, especially for non-violent crimes, has inflict more chaos to those societies than their crimes have. There are increasing amounts of people that are migrating into communities that have no qualification to consume them. Inmates can’t commit unlawful activities while imprisoned, they still aren’t operating as parents, workers, consumers, or neighbors. “As Marc Mauer (of The Sentencing Project) reports, there are now about 1.5 million children in the U.S. who have a parent in prison: “The effect on these communities is compounded by the fact that imprisonment has become an almost inevitable aspect of the experience of growing up as a black male in the U.S.” an attitude which contributes to repeating the Prisons have exploded with the “war on drugs”: more than 500,000 people—nearly a quarter of all those incarcerated—are incarcerated as the result of a drug conviction. The number of drug offenders in state prisons has increased thirteen-fold since 1980.   “Prisons have exploded with the “war on drugs”: more than 500,000 people—nearly a quarter of all those incarcerated—are incarcerated as the result of a drug conviction. (King Page 9) The number of drug offenders in state prisons has increased thirteen-fold since 1980. In 2008, 37 percent of black high-school dropouts were incarcerated. If these trends hold, 68 percent of African-American male high school dropouts born from 1975 to 1979 will spend time living in prison at some point in their lives. Nationally, approximately 5.3 million Americans are denied the right to vote because of laws that prohibit voting by people with felony convictions. Felony disenfranchisement has resulted in an estimated 13 percent of black men being unable to vote. In 2009, the federal government held over 380,000 people in immigration custody. Prisons devastate our communities: over the last two decades, state spending on prisons grew at six times the spending on higher education. Nearly $70 billion is spent annually on prisons, probation, and parole and detention centers”. (“Facts about Mass Incarceration of color in U.S.”)   In conclusion the effects of mass incarceration are unbarring on all American’s in the United States. “Until justice is blind to color, until education is unaware of race, until opportunity is unconcerned with the color of men’s skin, emancipation will be a proclamation but not a fact.” (Lyndon Johnson).

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